Table of Contents
Angle of View : In photography, angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.
Annunciator : An audible and/or visual signaling device.
ANPR : Acronym for Automated Number Plate Recognition.
Aperture : Aperture refers to F Stop value of a lens. It is the area of the aperture that determines the amount of light allowed to enter the Image sensor. The lower the F – stop number the more light it is able to absorb, f 1.0 means it can work under low (light) Lux level.
API : API is an acronym for Application Program Interface. This is used by programmers and refers to the interface providing the calling conventions for an application program to access the operation system.
ASCII : An acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. This is a standard format for sending data.
ASIC : ASIC is a form of modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. The amplitude of an analog carrier signal varies in accordance with the bit stream (modulating signal), keeping frequency and phase constant. The level of amplitude c an be used to represent binary logic 0s and 1s.
ASIS International : Originally called the American Society for Industrial Security, ASIS is a non- profit organization of security practitioners involved in the protection of people, property, and/or information assets.
ASIS : Acronym for ASIS International.
Aspect Ratio : The ratio of the vertical to the horizontal image size. This is usually 4:3 for analog video. A widescreen monitor typically has a 16:9 video format option.
ATA : Parallel ATA (PATA) is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disks, solid-state drives, floppy drives, and CD-ROM drives in computers. Now this technology is outdated.
ATR : ATR or Adaptive Tone Reproduction function provides gradation compensation to improve the contrast of subjects. The ATR function improves the visibility of the entire picture by providing the optimum gradation compensation for the image in one field based on the luminance information.
Audio Verification : A type of alarm verification using sound, with two major sub-types: One-Way Audio and Two-Way Audio.
Audit Trail : A means of recording and saving access control event history for later review.
Authorization Server : The Authorization Server maintains all client license and sub-controller license info. Also manages concurrent clients.
Automated License Plate Recognition : The US version of the term for Automated Number Plate Recognition.
Automated Number Plate Recognition : Technology that can scan and recognize license plates on vehicles for comparison with police databases.
AVI : An acronym for Audio Video Interleaved. This is a typical video format used in the PC world that can be read by a variety of standard programs. Some DVR manufacturers can export video to AVI files for easy review in a standard PC.
AWB : A system for detecting errors in color balance in white and black areas of the picture and automatically adjusting the white and black levels of both the red and blue signals as needed for correction.
AWB : Auto White Balance feature on color cameras whereby the camera constantly monitors the light and adjusts its color to maintain white areas.
Back Focus : Back Focus is a mechanical adjustment in a camera that moves the imaging device relative to the lens to compensate for different focal lengths of lenses. This is important when a zoom lens is installed.
Backlit : A remote control, projector control panel, or other object illuminated from behind. This can be helpful when working in darkened rooms.
Backup : In CCTV DVR context backup refers to saving a selected clip of video to an external device for the purpose of reviewing the clip in a standard PC. This is also called an Export.
Badge Reader : A reader used to read and interpret data encoded in an identification badge.
Badge : An identification card usually displaying a cardholder’s photo, signature or other specific identifying characteristics.
Badging Software : Security software that is capable of creating Photo Identification badges.
Badging Station : A hardware and software system used to obtain and save personal data about a cardholder (e.g., photo or signature).
Balanced Signal : A method of transmitting video, usually over twisted pair cable that consists of two equal but opposite signals being sent down two conductors.
Balun (Active/ Passive) : This is a device that allows video to travel over a twisted pair (Cat 5) wire rather than coax (RG 59) cable. This device matches the impedances of the different signals. Balun stands for balanced-unbalanced. A balun is required at the transmitting device (camera) and receiving device (DVR, monitor, etc.). Passive distance can be up to 990’ (300Mtrs) and active can be up to 9900’ (3 Km).
Bandwidth Limiter : This refers to a feature in some DVRs and Remote Software that limits the size of the network traffic provided. This feature restricts DVR/Remote software communication so more bandwidth remains available for other network traffic.
Bandwidth : Device bandwidth is the range of signal frequencies that a piece of audio or video equipment can encode or decode (the operating frequency). Video uses a wider/higher frequency range than audio, thus requires a wider bandwidth.
Bandwidth : The amount of data that can be sent from one computer to another through a particular connection in a certain amount of time, e.g. via a computer to the Internet and vice versa. The more bandwidth available, the faster you are able to access information
Bar Code Card : An access control card with identification information encoded in Bar Code format.
Bar Code Reader : A reader capable of reading and interpreting cards using bar codes to encode data.
Bar Code : A method of encoding information using machine readable rectangular bars and spaces of varying size and thickness to represent alphanumeric characters.
Barium Ferrite Card : An access control card with identification information encoded in the card via magnetic material embedded in the card.
Barium Ferrite Reader : A reader capable of reading and interpreting cards using barium ferrite to encode data.
Barricade Suspect : A term of art where a suspect is in a position of physical advantage, such as being barricaded in a room.
Base Band Video : This is the video signal used in CCTV. It is the NTSC or PAL format minus the broadcast frequency modulation and many other embedded signals used in Broadcast TV. It consists of video, horizontal sync and vertical sync. This is all that is required to view a video signal on a monitor
Base Plate : A metallic structure on which a compressor or other machine is mounted.
Batch Programming : A method for processing data or performing tasks in which a number of commands are collected and then processed by a controller all at one time.
Battery Backup : A secondary energy source used to power devices in the event the primary energy source fails. Battery Backup typically provides power for a short period of time, allowing for immediate action, system protection, and system shutdown before the battery reaches a drained state.
Battery standby : A means of automatically switching over to stored battery power during local primary power failure.
Baud : The unit of data signal transmission speed, typically expressed in bits per second.
Behaviometrics : A variation of biometrics that uses a person’s behavioral traits to identify them.
Bell Transformer : A small transformer used to reduce power line voltage to the level required by low power devices (i.e. card readers)
Beta Test : This refers to initial testing of a newly developed product that is ready to ship. Terminology differs between manufacturers. Usually by this stage major bugs that would stop shipment of the product are less likely than in the alpha test stage
Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) : The decimal numbers 0 through 9 expressed in a 4-bit binary format.
Binary : A base 2 numbering system using the two digits 0 and 1 (as opposed to ten digits [0-9] in the decimal system). In computer systems, the binary digits are represented by two different voltages or currents, one corresponding to zero and another corresponding to one, positive logic uses a positive voltage to represent binary 1 and zero volts to represent binary 0.
Biometric Access Control : Access control where the identification process is made through biometric parameters. See Access Control, Biometrics.
Biometrics : A machine readable technology that allows for the identification of individuals by reading unique biological features (i.e. fingerprints, hand geometry, voice analysis, the retinal pattern in the eye).
Biometrics : The identification of people using their physical characteristics.
Bit Mapped Graphics : The type of graphic that is defined and addressed on a bit-by-bit basis which makes all points on the screen display directly accessible.
Bit Rate : Bit rate is measured in bits per second. In IP video it usually refers to the bit rate from an IP camera. Controlling the bit rate controls the bandwidth needed to transfer data from the camera. The camera processor will automatically limit the maximum bit rate sent from the camera to the bit rate setting selected.
Bit : A contraction of Binary digit. Elementary digital information that can only be 0 or 1. The smallest part of information in a binary notation system. A bit is a single 1 or 0. In computer terms, a group of 4 bits is a nibble, 8 bits is a byte and 16 bits a word.
Bitmap : A pixel-by-pixel description of an image. Each pixel is a separate element. Also a computer file format for pictures.
Bits : Individual parts of data communication. A bit is the smallest part of the overall data stream. Serial communication is measured in bits per second (RS-232, RS-485, etc.).
Black Level : The level of the video signal that corresponds to the maximum limits of the black areas of the picture.
Black Pixels : This refers to hidden (unseen) pixels when megapixel cameras produce more pixels than can be seen on the monitor used for display. This is an issue as cameras usually lead the pixel count charge. Monitors can’t display all the pixels available and must “scale” the image (remove/rearrange pixels) to accommodate the display capability. Although you may be paying for more pixels than you can normally display, there is good news when you zoom in on a megapixel image. Those black (hidden) pixels can now be used in the expanded portion of the image providing the same quality level with expanded images. This avoids the fuzzy look produced by standard resolution zoomed images.
Blanking (Field and Line Flyback Blanking) : The operation of turning off the monitor display, or pick-up device, during sync pulses to avoid thin white lines appearing on the picture.
BLC : Back Light Compensation (BLC) is a feature of modern CCD cameras which electronically compensates for high background lighting to give detail which would normally be silhouetted.
Blooming : Blooming is the halation and defocusing effect that occurs around the bright areas of the picture (highlight) whenever there is an increase in the brightness intensity.
Blower : A compressor that is designed to operate at lower pressures. Usually a blower is an air compressor that operates below 2 bars, it can exhaust hot air from inside the camera to outside generally most useful for outdoor cameras.
Bluetooth : Bluetooth is a technical industry standard for radio technology which facilitates the transmission of signals over short distances (up to around 10 metres) between telephones, computers and other devices without the use of wires.
BNC : This is the standard connector type used in CCTV. It provides an easy Snap-On connection for a coax cable. What BNC stands for is less clear. Some say it means British Naval Connector. Others attribute it to the type and the inventor; Bayonet Neil Councilman.
Bounce : Bounce refers to sudden variations in picture presentation (brightness, size, etc.,) independent of scene illumination.
Bracket : When camera is hung on the celling or wall, a bracket is used for indoor and a pole stand is used for outdoor.
Break Before Make : A type of switch in which one set of contacts open before another set of contacts closes.
Break : To open an electrical circuit.
Bridging : A term indicating that a high impedance video line is paralleled, usually through a switch, to a source of video. A separate overall video output.
Brightness : The attribute of visual perception in accordance with which an area appears to emit more of less light. (Luminance is the recommended name for the photo- electric quantity which has also been called brightness.)
Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) : Enterprise term recognizing that people are bringing their own Wi-Fi enabled devices into corporate networks.
Broadband : A general term used to describe a high-speed connection to the Internet.
Brownout : Low line voltage that can cause disoperation of and possible damage to equipment. For example a motor that tries to start at low voltage can actually be in a lock-rotor condition and can overheat.
Browser : In video most manufacturers recommend Internet Explorer as the browser connection for their products. You can access DVR, NVR and IP cameras just by entering the IP address or domain name in the browser command line.
Buffer Capacity : Refers to the amount of information the system can store, this may include the users, time of day and specific door.
Bug : Not a nasty insect but a logical fault in a computer program which causes it to malfunction.
Build Slide : “Build series” slides show audiences where a topic is heading a line at a time. Each new line added appears in a bright color while the previous line drops back to a darker color.
Bumping : Sending an alarm to an alternate site or station following a user-defined time during which the alarm is unacknowledged.
Burst : Color burst or Chroma burst ten cycles (PAL) or seven to nine cycles (NTSC) of sub-carrier placed near the end of horizontal blanking to serve as the phase (color) reference for the modulated color sub-carrier. It enables the monitors’ Phase Locked Loop to synchronize and track the change of phase during every line of video.
Bus : 1) In power systems, a solid metal or uninsulated wire connector from which a universal type of power or ground connection is made. 2) In computer or data transmission systems, the principal channel through which all major sections communicate.
By Pass Valve : An automatic or manual valve that causes the flow to be by passed.
BYOD : Acronym for Bring Your Own Device.
Byte : A group of eight binary data bits.
Byte : Byte is 8 binary bits (ones and zeroes). The greater multiples of bytes are shown below Kilobyte (1,024 bytes), Megabyte (1,024 kilobytes, 10488576), Gigabyte (1,024 Megabytes 1073741824 bytes), Terabyte (1,024 Gigabytes 1099511627776 bytes) etc.
Cable Modem : This is a modem that allows you to connect to the Internet through your TV cable company. Speeds are similar to DSL.
Cam : A rotating eccentric piece attached to the end of a cylinder plug to actuate a lock or latch mechanism.
Camera : This is the basic video collection device that has many forms and configurations. Some are: box cameras (require a separate lens), bullet cameras (slim line all in one construction), dome camera (all in one in a dome design), PTZ camera (mounted on a PTZ platform device), PTZ dome (all in one package). An IP camera can be any of these and connect directly to a network.
Campus Community Emergency Response Team : The campus version of CERT, volunteers take classes that include Terrorism, Disaster Psychology, Medical Operations, Fire Fighting, Search & Rescue, and more.
Campus Security Authorities : In the context of the Clery Act, a crime is considered reported when it is brought to the attention of a CSA or local police by a victim.
CAP : Acronym for Common Alerting Protocol.
Card Access : A type of access control system using encoded cards and card readers to identify cardholders and determine if access may be granted. See Cardholder.
Card Encoder : A device used to encode data onto an access card.
Card Reader : A device that retrieves information stored on an access card and transmits that information to a controller.
Card : An identification device assigned to an individual that identifies that individual. Typically, it is the size of a credit card. See Access Card, Key Tag.
Cardholder : An individual who has been assigned an access control card or tag.
CAT5 : CAT5 is a network cable that supports Ethernet speeds (up to 100 Mbps). As with all other types of twisted pair EIA/TIA cabling, CAT5 cable runs are limited to a maximum recommended run length of 95mtrs (313 feet) & it can be available in 2. Market contains four pairs of copper wire.
CAT5e : Is similar to CAT-5, the ‘e’ standing for enhanced. This cable has more ability for data transmission. Cat-5e also can be used for Gigabit Ethernet and generally has less near-end crosstalk. In new cabling system CAT5e cables are almost always used over CAT5.
CAT6 : is a most sophisticated cables, it is also comprised of four pieces of twisted pair copper wire, it has a longitudinal separator. This allows the cables to be separated from each other and, in turn, allows not only for an increased data transfer speed, but less crosstalk and double the bandwidth. CAT6 cabling is a good choice for IP Camera & NVR, especially those that are evolving and might need more options in the future. CAT-6 is perfect for 10 Gigabit Ethernet and can work at up to 250 MHz
CATV : Short for Cable Access Television. The method for distributing RF signals via coaxial cable rather than radiated through the air.
CCD : Charged Coupled Device is a type of image sensor used in CCTV cameras. The sensor converts optical images in to electrical signals. These are also known in the market as HAD CCD, IT CCD, and Super HAD CCD.
C-CERT : Acronym for Campus Community Emergency Response Team.
CCIR : Committee Consultative International Radiotelegraphique. This is a standards committee of the International Telecommunications Union, who made the technical recommendation for the European 625 line standard for video signals (black and white).
CCTV : An acronym for Closed Circuit Television. Originally this was described as a system with cables directly from cameras to viewing devices with no outside world connections. The Internet has changed all that. Now you can access any DVR with browser software through the Internet.
Central or on line processing : A system where all systems information is stored in a central location and all go or no-go decisions are made by this unit.
Central Station : Sometimes called an Alarm Monitoring Center, Central Station refers to a service company that monitors burglar, fire and residential alarm systems.
Certified Protection Professional : A board certification by ASIS, the CPP credential shows the recipient has demonstrable proof of knowledge and management skills in eight key domains of security.
Channel Relay : A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used.
Channel : The path in which the SSP controller communicates with the host or driver.
Checksum : An additional set of information transferred with a computer program or a data stream that is used to verify the accuracy of the data just transferred.
Chip-In-Card : See Smart Card.
Choke Point : A portal or area through which traffic must pass.
Chrominance : This is the color portion of a composite video signal (See Luminance).
CIF : An acronym for Common Intermediate Format, a set of standard video formats, defined by their resolution. CIF resolution is 352 x 288 pixels and is also known as D1 720 x 576, 2CIF, 4CIF, 960H.
Circle of Protection : A security plan in which the items to be protected are surrounded by two or more protective zones of increasing size. For example, a bank vault may have the heavy vault door, followed by a controlled access door into the vault area, followed by the bank building with an alarm system.
Circuit Breaker : A switch on an incoming power circuit that opens if abnormal circuit conditions arise (such as an overload or short circuit).
Circuit, closed : (1) An electrical circuit in which current normally flows until interrupted by opening of a switch- type electronic component. (2) A circuit or switch in which the contacts are open during normal operations.
Circuit, open : (1) An electrical circuit in which current does not flow until permitted by the opening of a switch or a switch-type electronic component. (2) A circuit or switch in which the contacts are closed during normal operations.
Circuit : The path through which electrical energy flows.
Clerestory : A type of window that is above eye-level.
Clery Act : The 1990 Student Right-To-Know and Campus Security Act.
Client Server Network : This is a network where a server (an unattended PC) stores information and shares it with the clients (the attended workstations). The clients depend on the servers for normal operation. The workstations do not necessarily talk to each other.
Client : In CCTV DVR context the Client is the PC running the remote software that accesses the DVR or other device. The device originating the video is the Server.
Client : A computer that receives services from another computer.
Closed-circuit Television : Fixed video cameras that transmit to monitors in a single place.
Closure : The point at which two contacts meet to complete a circuit.
CMAS : Acronym for Commercial Mobile Alert System.
CMOS : Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor imaging chip is a type of Active Pixel Sensor made using the CMOS semiconductor process. Extra circuitry next to each photo sensor converts the light energy to a voltage. Additional circuitry on the chip may be included to convert the voltage to digital data. CMOS cameras were originally low in quality but typically less expensive than a CCD sensor. This has been known in the market as HDIS/ HQIS/ DIS/ QIS Sensors, or flicker less camera etc.
C-Mount/ CS-Mount Lens : C-Mount cameras and lenses were the first to be used in CCTV applications. The lens screws directly into the camera providing a distance of 17.5mm between the back of the lens and the imager. Current CS lenses are smaller and better suited for smaller cameras. The lens to imager distance is 12.5mm. A 5mm spacer called a C-ring, or C-mount is used with CS lenses to bring the lens to imager distance to 17.5mm.
CMS Software : This is an acronym for Central Management Software. This is a generic term used to indicate the installable remote software packages provided by any DVR manufacturer. Each manufacturer has a specific name for their CMS product.
CMS : Control Management Software is software used for managing multiple systems.
Coaxial Cable : A type of shielded cable capable of carrying a wide range of frequencies (video or radio) with very low signal loss.
CODEC : A codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding and/or decoding a digital data stream or signal.
Coercivity : The property of a magnetic material, as on magnetic stripe keys, which is a measure of the coercive force. It is used when describing the strength of magnetic saturation when discussing magnetic stripe card keys.
COG : Acronym for Collaborative Operating Group.
Coil, electric : Successive turns if insulated wire that created a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through them.
Collaborative Operating Group : A federal, state, local, tribal or territorial alerting authority with authorization to use FEMA’s IPAWS system.
Color Encoder : Color encoder is a device which produces an NTSC color signal from separate R, G, and B video inputs.
Color Saturation : Color saturation refers to the degree to which a color is free of white light.
Columbine : A high school massacre in Colorado on April 20th, 1999.
COM Port : A hardware device that allows a computer to communicate with external devices.
Command : An operator-initiated event that causes a change or action within the access control system.
Commercial Mobile Alert System : A partnership between FEMA, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and wireless carriers, CMAS is the system interface to the Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) service to enhance public safety.
Common Alerting Protocol : A global XML standard for disseminating alert messages.
Community Emergency Response Team : Volunteer emergency workers who have received specific training in basic disaster response skills to supplement existing emergency responders.
Composite Video : The complete visual wave form of the color video signal composed of chrominance and luminance picture information; blanking pedestal; field, line, and color sync pulses; and field equalizing pulses. More simply for CCTV purposes it contains the video signal and horizontal and vertical sync pulses on a single wire.
Compression Ratio : The ratio of the absolute discharge pressure to the absolute intake pressure.
Compression : Video must be compressed in size in order to make it manageable in the record and remote transmit functions. Typical compression standards include H.264 / M-JPEG & MPEG-4. Some DVR manufacturers use proprietary compression methods that are usually modified versions of the standards.
Conductor : A material that readily allows electricity to flow through it. Most metals are good conductors.
Conduit : A tube or trough for protecting wires and cables. It may be a solid or flexible tube in which insulated electrical wires are run.
Connector : Generally, any device used to provide rapid connect/disconnect service for electrical cable and wire terminations.
Contact Rating : The load rating of a switch, listed by maximum voltage and/or current accepted by the switch.
Contact : A magnetically or electrically controlled connection point that opens or closes to interrupt or allow the flow of current.
Continuous duty : Refers to a device or a control that can operate continuously with no off or rest periods.
Contract Security : The proper term for “security guard Company,” which is less in favor.
Contrast Ratio : The ratio between white and black. The larger the contrast ratio the greater the ability of a projector to show subtle color details and tolerate extraneous room light. There are two methods used by the projection industry: 1) Full On/Off contrast measures the ratio of the light output of an all-white image (full on) and the light output of an all-black (full off) image. 2) ANSI contrast is measured with a pattern of 16 alternating black and white rectangles. The average light output from the white rectangles is divided by the average light output of the black rectangles to determine the ANSI contrast ratio.
Contrast : Contrast is the difference in the color and brightness of the object and other objects within the same field of view.
Control Center : A central location in a secure area where access and alarm sub-systems are supervised and security personnel are located.
Control Point : An exit or entry point such as a door, turnstile, or gate, where access is controlled.
Controller : A microprocessor based circuit board that manages access to a secure area. The controller receives information that it uses to determine through which doors and at what times cardholders are granted access to secure areas. Based on that information, the controller can lock/unlock doors, sound alarms, and communicate status to a host computer. Includes the SSP, SSP- C, and SSPE.
Cookie : A piece of information stored on a user’s computer by a Web Browser when the user visits a website for the first time.
Covert Camera : A covert camera is not visible to the operator of the system. It is intentionally obscured from view and often used for surveillance of employees. An authorized operator with the proper password privileges can view the camera and recorded information.
CPP : Acronym for Certified Protection Professional.
CPTED : Acronym for Crime Prevention through Environmental Design.
CRI : Color Rendition Index is a measurement of how accurately a camera captures the reflected color in an image (a scale of 1 – 100). High CRI numbers provide the best results. Faithful color rendition in lighting is said to improve the morale of those working in the environment.
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design : A theory that certain design principles can create a climate of safety in a physical location.
CRT : Cathode Ray Tube is the picture tube of a normal monitor or television.
CSA : Acronym for Campus Security Authorities.
CSA : The CSA label on a product signifies that the product has met requirements set by CSA International, and that the product manufacturer is authorized to use the CSA symbol on their products.
CSAA : Acronym for the Central Station Alarm Association.
CSI : An acronym for Construction Standards Institute. CSI standards cover the entire construction process of buildings including all the systems installed in the building. CCTV/security is only one system of many included in the specs. Some CCTV manufacturers are writing their A&E specs to follow the CSI format.
CSO : Acronym for Chief Security Officer.
Current : The flow of electrons through an electrical conductor. Current is measured in amperes.
CVBS : An acronym for Composite Video Baseband Signal. This is the portion of the NTSC broadcast video signal that is used in traditional CCTV. It is the basic video composite signal (video, horizontal and vertical sync signals) minus the carrier frequencies, audio, closed caption and many embedded signals used on broadcast video. Interestingly, the same acronym is also used for Composite Video Broadcast Signal.
Cypher Lock : A digital push-button combination lock.
D/N : Day & Night Operation refers to cameras that are capable of providing usable images at night by changing camera parameters to work more efficiently in low light. A basic example of day/night operation is the use of IR LEDs within the camera housing. Some very inexpensive cameras can provide usable images in total darkness. More sophisticated changes in more expensive cameras include switching the camera to black and white mode at night and reducing the image capture rate to allow more light to reach the imager.
Data Card : Data card is basically a USB modem. Some of the products can support data card for video surveillance application. Dynamic location such as vehicle or undeveloped areas like rural village, construction sites, mining area, hill station, estates, farm house, agriculture land, beach, park, tourist place can be brought under surveillance. These locations need to be covered under Mobile network such as GSM / GPRS / CDMA / 2G / 3G or 4G. For e.g. 16 Series & MDM0205 DVR can support this function.
Data Lifetime : This is the name generally given to a feature that ensures that data is not retained on the system for more than a specified amount of time. This is a legal requirement in many European countries.
Database : A collection of data used and produced by a computer program. The files created at the host of the access control system forms its database.
dB : Decibel is a logarithmic measure of the ratio between two powers, voltages, currents, sound intensities, etc. Signal-to-noise ratios are expressed in decibels.
DC Iris : DC Iris is a type of lens with internal circuit which receives voltage and a video signal from the camera to adjust the iris. IRIS are two kinds DC-IRIS and other one is a Video IRIS this is been known in the name of Auto iris DC Drive or Video Drive for controlling iris inside the camera.
DDNS : To access DVR/IP camera on internet requires a static IP, it’s a recurring expense to the client in order to promote their products some of manufacturer use to offer DDNS service to resolve Dynamic IP into domain name.
Dead latch : A latch in which the latch bolt is positively held in the projected position by an auxiliary mechanism.
Deadbolt : A bolt operated manually and not actuated by springs. When locked, the bolt cannot be forced back. A deadbolt is operated (projected and retracted) by a key cylinder or lever handle.
Decoder : The circuitry in a color TV receiver which transforms the detected color signals into a form suitable to operate the color tube.
Dedicated I/O Point : An input or output that is dedicated to a specific function. Often, dedicated input points can be assigned to initiate tasks such as an Auxiliary RTE, and a dedicated output point can be assigned to initiate tasks such as the annunciation of Door Forced or Door Held Open alarms.
Dedicated Telephone Line : A telephone line directly connecting two points. Also Known As – Lease Line.
Degausser : A device that creates a strong magnetic field that erases data from magnetically encoded media such as magnetic stripe cards.
Degraded Mode : A mode of controller operation that provides a minimal authorization level in the event of controller failure.
Delay on break : A term used to describe a mode of operation relative to timing devices. The delay begins when the initiate switch is opened (delay break of initiate switch).
Delay on energization : A term used to describe operation relative to timing devices. The delay begins when the initiate switch is closed or application of power to the input.
Delay : A period of time before or during an event.
Department of Homeland Security : A cabinet level department formed after the 9/11 attacks.
Depth of Field : This is the in-focus range of the image produced by the lens. Objects in the focus area are clear. They will become less clear as they get closer to, or further away from the camera. The distance of the area of clear focus is the depth of field.
Device Address : Value set on an access control device to determine its unique identity.
DHCP : This is an acronym for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. This is a function that allows a network to automatically assign an IP address to a PC when the user logs on to the system. All devices on a network require an IP address. DHCP does this automatically. The alternative is to manually enter a static IP address in each device.
DHS : Acronym for Department of Homeland Security.
Dial-up : This is a slow speed network connection using ordinary telephone lines and modems. The maximum connection speed is reported as 56K but most provide closer to 30K.
Digital Recording : This is the latest form of recording and is relatively new to the CCTV industry as a result is not the most economical method however it does have several advantages over the VCR analogue tape recorders. First of all it enables quick access to the desired image or picture. Digital images can also be enhanced or processed further which can help detect images that may normally go unnoticed. One of the better properties of Digital Recording is that there is no replay degradation due to poor tape quality and unlike conventional video recording methods Digital Recording provides
Digital Zoom : This refers to enlarging a portion of an image by adding additional pixels within the image to fill the larger area. It makes the picture area larger at the expense of video quality. The intelligence for this feature can be in a camera or a DVR.
Digital : In CCTV, digital refers to devices that operate in pixel formats. Analog video devices use traditional NTSC and PAL formats. The lines of difference are blurred when you consider the analog signal is converted to digital and back again (often several times) within a traditional CCTV system. Pure end-to-end digital video is achieved using IP cameras through a network to NVRs and LCD monitors.
Digitized Signal : This is an analog signal that has been converted to a digital form so that it can be processed and altered.
Direct current (DC) : Electrical current that travels only in one direction and has negative and positive polarity. It may or may not have an AC ripple component. DC sources that are unfiltered should be referred to as full- wave or half-wave rectified circuits.
Direct X : Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces (APIs) for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms.
Dirty Bomb : An explosive device designed to spread radiological contamination.
Distributed Access Control : Access control systems in which all control decisions are made at the local controllers, independent from a host computer. Local Controller events are uploaded to a host computer periodically for review and storage.
Distributed Intelligent Devices : Access control devices that make their own access decisions uploading event messages periodically to the central processing unit for storage.
Distributed processing : An access control system where some of the system information is stored at the individual readers or controllers. This allows the system to operate when the host is down or not communicating.
Distribution Amplifier : Distribution amps take an incoming video signal and split it into separate signals that are sent to multiple devices. Dist. Amps come in a range of sizes (1×4, 16×4, etc). Despite the name, few of th ese devices actually amplify the Video signal. They separate and distribute a single input to several outputs. They don’t increase the maximum cable distance.
DNS : Domain Name System matches internet computer names to IP numbers. This allows you to type in the URL www.Somecompany.com of the static IP address.
Domain : A number of computer devices administered as a group. A Domain server is set up and maintained by the network administrator (the person in charge of the network).
Dongle : Dongle is a hardware lock. This is a little device that plugs into the USB or serial port of a computer. Its purpose is to protect piracy of the software applications. If you have never seen a dongle, don’t be surprised. They are only used with expensive, high-end software programs.
Door Forced Alarm : An alarm generated when a door is forced open, opening the door switch contact. This requires a status switch and some type of read device.
Door Held Open Alarm : An alarm generated when a door is held open beyond the designated period of time (as programmed by access control software). This is used to prevent someone from using a card to enter and then leave the door open for others. This requires a status switch on the door.
Door Held Open Time : The amount of time from when a door is opened before an alarm is generated for the door being opened too long. This is often used to monitor if a door is being propped open following a valid access request.
Door status switch : A DSS is a switch used to monitor whether a door is in an opened or closed position.
Door Switch : A switch that reflects the state of the door: if the door is open, the switch is open — if the door is closed, the switch is closed.
Door : A generic term for a securable entry way. In many access control applications a “door” may actually be a gate, turnstile, elevator door, or similar device.
Double pole, double throw, (DPDT) : A term used to describe a switch or relay output contact form (2form C) in which two separate switches operating simultaneously, each with a separate normal closed contract and a common connection. This form is used to make and break two separate circuits.
Download : Sending information from a host computer to a peripheral device in an access control system. An “update” action to send saved information to the SSP. See Save.
DR : An acronym for Dynamic Range. Dynamic range is the difference between the maximum acceptable signal level and the minimum acceptable signal level.
Driver : Device Driver is a software program that allows a computer to communicate with a peripheral. You need the appropriate driver to allow your printer to work with your system. Many drivers are available on a PC as part of the operating system. However, don’t depend on this as drivers for devices newer than the operating system will not be installed. You typically get a copy of the driver with the purchased device. The manufacturer’s web site is a common place to get the latest available drivers for a device. Drivers are often referred to as DLLs (dynamic link library). Virtually all drivers used in CCTV devices are proprietary. So once you get away from the standard stuff you have to rely upon the manufacturer’s good will for interface help.
Dry contract : Metallic points making (closing) or breaking (opening) a circuit. The switch circuit must have its own source of power and is merely routed through the dry contacts.
DSL : An acronym for Digital Subscriber Line. This is a high speed network connection typically used in homes and businesses.
DSP : Acronym for Digital Signal Processor. DSP chips compress video freeing the CPU processor for other tasks. This increases compression capabilities at an additional cost.
Dual Stream : This term is typically used to indicate a device capable of providing two different application or compressions.
Duplex : Device can perform two simultaneous functions like record and configure the monitor display.
Duress Alarm : A device that generates a silent alarm signal in the event a person is experiencing Duress. This device may be a standalone signaling device or it may be incorporated into a reader.
Duress Code : An alphanumeric code which, when entered into an access control system, alerts the system to a Duress condition.
Duress : Forcing a person to provide access to a secure area against that person’s wishes.
Duty Cycle : The ration of system ON time to system OFF time.
DVD : An acronym for Digital Video Disk. This is the standard media used for PCs and movies.
DVR : An acronym for Digital Video Recorder, this is a manufacturer designed hardware platform for recording. It may have many functions like Recorder/ Multiplexer/ Remote surveillance/ Alert notification. It is a proprietary design that is unique to an individual manufacturer. This also know in the market as Embedded DVR / Standalone DVR
Dynamic IP : This refers to IP addresses that are automatically assigned to a network device when the user logs on to the system. See DHCP.
Dynamic Situation : A term of art for situations that are changing rapidly based on the shooter’s actions.
Earth Ground : An electrical connection point that brings all electrically neutral lines to the earth’s surface potential (essentially zero potential). A good earth ground helps to protect electrical devices from damage caused by transients such as power surges and lightning strikes, and drains electrical interference from data, communication, and power lines that support these electrical devices. See Ground.
EAS : Acronym for Emergency Alert System.
Easy egress : A means of exiting where the person wishing to leave simply turns the doorknob to exit.
ECV : Acronym for Enhanced Call Verification.
ED : Official acronym for the US Department of Education.
Effective Pixel : The number of effective pixels that an image sensor has is the count of elementary pixel sensors that contribute to the final image, as opposed to the number of total pixels, which includes unused or light – shielded pixels around the edges.
Effio : Newly developed Chip set. This enables to provide clearer pictures with higher sensitivity compared to conventional CCTV cameras. It’s a trademark component of Sony Corporation. For e.g. our 700TVL series based on Effio-E & Effio-P chipset
EGA : AKA Enhanced Graphics Array, EGA is an image which displays 640 pixels by 350 lines with 16 colors from a palette of 64 colors.
Egress : Passage through an opening in the exit direction, especially passage that leads out of a structure (opposite of ingress).
EI : Electronic Iris shuttering is the ability of the camera to compensate for moderate light changes in indoor applications without the use of auto iris lenses.
EIA : The American 525 line standard for the Black and White video signal.
EIDE : Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics. This is the cable connection from a PC motherboard to a disk drive, CD drive or other devices. This is an eighty pin ribbon connector cable. This is a later development to IDE.
EIS : Acronym for Electronic Image Stabilization. This feature is an option on some camcorders. It helps to keep the image from shaking with hand held movement. This feature is available in some CCTV cameras.
Electric Door Lock : A remotely operated electric locking device. See Electric Strike, Electromagnetic Lock.
Electric Door Strike : An electric door locking device, usually solenoid operated, that will unlock a door when electric power is either applied, or removed, depending upon the configuration.
Electric Strike : A door unlocking device that is installed in the door jamb and that works in conjunction with a mechanical lock or latch mechanism. Requires power to be applied to unlock a door.
Electrified Lock : A mechanical locking device that has been modified to allow an electric circuit to lock or unlock it.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) : Excess electromagnetic energy radiated by an electrical device that may affect the operation of other electrical devices.
Electromagnetic Lock : An electric door lock that uses an electromagnet to hold a door closed. See MagneticLock.
Electromagnetic : A general term referring to the electric and magnetic fields associated with the movement of electrons through conductors.
Email Alert : is a service offered by the product vendor for various failures for e.g. email@example.com (XXXX is Device serial number) you can get mail from this id to your personal mail id. During intrusion it can general real time event message so you can immediate action during unusual.
E-Map : (Electronic map). This term is used to describe a feature on some DVRs. It allows you to import an image (like a layout drawing of a building) and place camera icons within the image to represent installed camera locations. Some allow you to click on an icon to see the actual camera video, initiate and cancel alarms, etc. Also see GEO map.
Embossed Card : An access control card that uses a raised pattern as a means of encoding data.
EMI : See Electromagnetic Interference
EMS : Electromagnetic interference from outside the component or device to withstand the measured level value.
Enclosure : A box or cabinet usually constructed of metal, which houses system components, such as circuit boards and other electronic and electrochemical controls and circuitry.
Encoding : Encoding is the process of transforming information from one format to another. The opposite operation is called decoding.
Energize : To apply power.
Enhanced Call Verification : An industry-wide initiative which requires central stations to make a second call to a second telephone number before requesting a dispatch from law enforcement.
Enterprise Software : This is a term used to describe control software used to manage multiple systems. CMS (Control Management System/Software) and VMS (Video Management System/Software) are often used interchangeably.
Entrance Delay : See Door Held Open Time.
EPROM : An acronym for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. A programmed memory (often in a chip) that can not only be read, but can be repeatedly erased under high-intensity ultraviolet light and reprogrammed.
Equalization : The process of correcting losses of certain components in a signal.
Ethernet : Ethernet is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. It defines a number of wiring and signaling standards for the Physical Layer of the OSI networking model as well as a common addressing format and Media Access Control at the Data Link Layer.
Event List : This is a list of alarms that have occurred in the unit. The list typically indicates the logs like Date & time. The type of alarm such as Video loss/ Motion detection/ HDD Error/ Network disconnect/ Remote login and any other information that is deemed relevant by the design.
Event : An occurrence at a controller (such as unlocking a door, requesting to exit, forcing a door open) that generates a message stored by the controller.
Executive Privilege : An option which allows a cardholder unlimited access to all operational access points. Access may be without the system referring to any other access parameters, or there may be a PIN-code requirement that has been enabled.
Exit Alarm : A device that indicates (either audibly or silently) that a secure door has been forced opened.
Exit Lock : A push-bar door lock that spans the width of the door, used for emergency exit. An Exit Lock may be connected to an Exit Alarm.
Exit Reader : A reader used to control exiting from a secure area.
Exit Switch : A switch that is used to initiate a Request to Exit. A push button, switch mat, proximity detector, or other device which starts a timer in the reader interface electronics when someone is leaving through a controlled entry or exit. The timer bypass (shunts) the door-open detector for a
Exmor : The name of a technology Sony implemented on some of their CMOS image sensors. It produce HD image quality this can be used for analogue or IP CCTV cameras, it has special function like Noise Reduction, wide dynamic range, low lux and many more. For e.g. our analog 1000TVL series cameras based on IMX138/ IMX238 & 2.4MP IP series camera based on IMX222 sensors
Ext. Sync : External Sync is the ability of CCTV equipment, normally cameras, to accept one or more of the standard sync formats so as to align itself to the rest of the system.
Facility Code : In card access, a portion of the identifying characteristic of an access credential that is common to a group of users in secured facility.
Factory Defaults : This term refers to the initial menu settings of a device when it was shipped from the factory. When problems are encountered after changing menu settings it sometimes helps to restore the factory settings and start over.
Fail-Secure Door : A fail-secure door is one that if the power should fail at that door, the door will automatically lock and not allow entrance, but will continue to allow exit. A fail-secure door ensures a secure area remains secure regardless of the situation.
Fail-Secure : An electric lock that requires power to unlock. Also called fail-locked.
Fail-Unlocked : An electric lock that automatically unlocks with any power interruption. Also called fail-safe.
False Alarm : An alarm signal generated without an existing alarm condition.
Federal Emergency Management Agency : FEMA operates the IPAWS communication system.
Federal Information Security Management Act : A 2002 law requiring all federal agencies to develop, document, and implement information security programs.
Fiber Optic Backbone : This refers to an infrastructure of fiber connections within a campus, area, city or country. A fiber backbone provides a great method for sending very large amounts of data (video, etc.) over long distances.
Field of View : This is the entire visible area of the image produced by the camera/lens.
Field : Each complete video image in NTSC/PAL (frame) is composed of two fields. One field consists of the odd numbered lines in the frame and the other field consists of the even numbered lines. When viewed together in rapid succession, these lines form the complete frame image. The NTSC and PAL formats called for double scanning fields to reduce the visual flicker that was common on early TV monitors. Monitors got better over time but the “standard” did not change. Each individual field independently forms a picture. A CIF image is typically derived from a single field. 4CIF (and D1) images require a full frame.
Fingerprint Pattern Area : The identifying characteristics of a fingerprint, consisting of the arches, loops, and whorls in the fingerprint.
Fingerprint Reader : A biometric reader that identifies a person based on the person’s fingerprint pattern.
Fire door latch : A latch that has a 3/4 inch throw and an antifriction retractor.
Fire door : A door that has been certified as a fire and smoke barrier. Special rules govern fire doors, including permissible hardware that can be installed.
Firewall : A firewall is a software package that sits between your computer and your Internet connection, keeping an eye on the traffic going to and from. If anything suspicious appears, such as an unauthorized attempt from a remote computer to write information to your hard disc or to send information from your computer to a remote computer, it will block it and warn you.
FISMA : Acronym for Federal Information Security Management Act.
Flash Drive : A small USB memory device. Connect it to a USB port to import and export files. These devices are commonly used to export video from a DVR, upgrade firmware, etc. These are also called Thumb Drives.
Flicker : Contrast this time replaced with the shift, I feel I see the eyes blink phenomenon. The frequency change is relatively easy to feel not only accepted. In general CMOS camera never flickers.
FLIR : Acronym for Forward Looking Infrared.
Focal length : The distance between the secondary principal point in the lens and the plane of the imaging device. The longer the focal length, the narrower is the angle of view.
Form C contact : A relay or switch mechanism that contains three terminals (normally open, common, and normally closed).
Forward Looking Infrared : FLIR senses infrared radiation to capture images, typically for use on military and civilian aircraft.
FPS : Frame Per Second means how many snapshots camera can capture the images, it is a tool to measure of how motion video is recorded, to make conclusion 25FPS is required to analyze data if event took place or not. In the motion picture industry uses 25 snap shots to create 1 second video clip. PAL: The standard used in India it delivers 25 FPS. NTSC: The standard used in United States of America. It delivers 30 FPS.
Frame Rate : Frame rate, also known as frame frequency and frames per second (FPS), is the frequency (rate) at which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called frames.
FTP : Abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol. This is the method, i.e. a software standard, used for transferring files from one computer to another via the Internet.
Full Duplex : A duplex communication system is a system composed of two connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions. (The term multiplexing is used when describing communication between more than two parties or devices.) Duplex systems are employed in many communications networks, either to allow for a communication “two -way street” between two connected parties or to provide a “reverse path” for the monitoring and remote adjustment of equipment in the field.
Fuse : A protective device, placed in a circuit as a safeguard that contains a metal. When the current flow becomes too great, the metal melts, thus breaking the circuit.
Gain Value : This means value for increase that transferring from device.
Gain : When change light which is damascened from subject to biographical signal, it means conversion ratio. If GAIN grows, because of change to big electric signal using light which is less, noise is grown on screen.
Gamma Correction : To provide for a linear transfer characteristic from input to output device.
Gate : Typically, a door that is outdoors.
Gateway : This is the hardware/software device used to connect LANs with dissimilar operating systems. The gateway often refers to an Internet connection. The gateway is a single device that provides a single IP address to the outside world and routes traffic to the appropriate internal IP addresses.
General Protection Fault : An operating system fault that occurs whenever a program executes a command that the operating system considers dangerous to the operating system. When a GPF is generated, the program that generated the GPF is closed and control is returned to the operating system.
Geo Maps : Geographical Maps are usually more sophisticated than E-maps. These maps may provide more functionality. The actual background map can be any file including CAD drawings, AVI, bit maps, screen captures and the often used Google Earth map. Just use the Print Screen key to capture any image and save it to Paint (print screen is a one page buffer that is overwritten each time you press the print screen key). In Paint, select edit, paste to show the image. Crop and Save it to a folder.
Geographic Information System : A combination of hardware, software, and data that captures, manages, analyzes, and presents geographic data associated with a facility or larger area.
Geospatial Predictive Analytics : A form of predictive modeling that applies crime data points to maps.
GFSA : Acronym for the Gun-Free Schools Act.
GIS : Short for Geographic Information System.
Glass break station : A device mounted near the exit door that can be used to release the door in the event of an emergency.
Global Linking : An input at one Access Control panel affecting the output at another.
Global Positioning System : A space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth.
Global Unlock : A normally-open input that, when closed, generates a signal that unlocks all doors in the access control system.
GPS : Acronym for Global Positioning System.
Gray Scale : The number of variations from white to gray to black.
Ground : 1) An electrical connection with a ground potential point. 2) An electrical connection to a circuit’s zero voltage reference point. See Earth Ground.
Group : A logical set of common data objects such as cardholders or hardware points.
Guard Tour : A defined route of a security guard.
GUI : An acronym for Graphical User Interface. This is the visual display that the operator uses to use the system.
Gun-Free Schools Act : A law that provides penalties for bringing a gun to school.
H.264 : A standard for high definition video encoding and compression.
Hand Geometry : A biometric access control technology that verifies a person’s identity by using the variations in hand size, finger length, and finger thickness.
Hazmat : A shortened version of “Hazardous Materials,” typically associated with the teams that respond for containment and cleanup.
HD : An acronym for High Definition closed circuit television. This is an emerging new standard for sending video over standard RG-59 coax cable. One purpose of the standard is to take advantage of HD monitors and provide the clearest live picture possible. The standard requires modified hardware in cameras, DVRs and monitors. This is expected to be available early 2010. This sounds like a local live improvement but recording and sending the data through the Internet will require compression to be effective. We’ll see the results when it is available at trade shows.
HDD : An acronym for Hard Disk Drive.
HDIS : High Definition Image Sensor is a technology introduced which offers HD quality images in Analog & IP cameras. 700TVL, 800TVL, 1000TVL & IP cameras are based on HDIS technology. It’s a far better technology as compare to HQIS available in the market. It is most suitable for people who expect quality.
HDMI : Acronym for High Definition Multimedia Interface. This is a single cable connection used in consumer electronics providing a high level of clarity. This type of connection is beginning to show up in CCTV products.
Heat Map : A two dimensional representation of data where values are represented in different colors.
High Gain Screen : A screen that uses one of more methods to collect light and reflect it back to the viewing audience, which will increase the brightness of the image over a white-wall or semi- matte screen.
Historical Log : A chronological record of events.
History : A log of system activity that can be recalled by utilizing the report command. Most systems offer a feature that notifies the console operator of the amount of available storage for history information preventing information from being written over. The message will usually alert the operator to archive the information onto a removable magnetic tape.
Home Position : This refers to PTZ cameras. The camera will return to a preset position after a selected period of inactivity. The preset position is usually preset #1. This feature ensures that the
Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12 : HSPD-12 is a mandatory, Government-wide standard for secure and reliable forms of identification issued by the Federal Government to its employees and contractors (including contractor employees).
Horizontal Resolution : Images can be distinguished by lines of horizontal resolution up to. TV on the screen, as determined by the number of black vertical lines indicates. The unit will use this, or Line.
Host Computer : The central controlling computer from which access control software applications are run.
Host Settings : The settings which determine the behavior of the application at the host or workstation.
Host : Short for host computer. Any computer that provides services to other computers that are linked to it, via a local network or via the Internet.
HQIS : Acronym for High quality image sensor
HSPD-12 : In an effort to reduce identity fraud, enhance security, increase government efficiency and protect personal privacy, Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12 was issued Aug. 27, 2004, to establish a mandatory, government-wide standard for secure and reliable forms of identification issued by the federal government to its employees and contractors.
HTTP : Hyper Text Transfer Protocol used to transfer information from web servers to web browsers.
Hybrid : Hybrid refers to combinations of analog and IP video solutions. Originally this meant connecting analog cameras to video encoders for connection to an NVR. More recent Hybrid systems are a combination DVR / NVR allowing both analog (BNC) and Ethernet connected IP cameras.
Hz : Frequency (f) the rate at which a wave completes one full cycle. The rate per second is expressed in Hertz (Hz). Power frequency is 60 Hz in the United States but 50 Hz used in India most other
I/O : Input/ output ports in main unit peripheral devices can be connected. This can produce alarms in case sensor activates (Input device called as a sensors such as a door switch, smoke detector, PIR sensor or glass break detector can be used for triggering an alarm event and it can be connected as inputs port. Output ports can be connected to control devices or relays, for instance, to open/close doors or turn on/off lights upon alarm). For e.g our MD2104, MD2108, MD2116 all in one IP camera like MCIPDVGS02, MIPD13AWP4A, MIPD24AWP4A & alarm panel MALP1604 has this function. In high security this can be more useful for taking action during the event.
IAHSS : Acronym for International Association for Healthcare Security and Safety.
IC : Acronym for Incident Commander.
ICS : Acronym for Incident Command System.
ID : Identification Devices in a system typically have a unique ID number assigned to the products, for e.g. Speed Dome we can set ID to differentiate cameras, like network products has unique id for remote surveillance like P2P/ DDNS ID.
IDE : Integrated Drive Electronics is the cable connection from a PC motherboard to a disk drive, CD drive or other devices. This is a forty pin ribbon connector cable. EIDE is an updated configuration 80 pin connections providing an individual ground for each data signal.
Identification Card : A card that stores the information necessary to verify the identity of the cardholder.
Identification : The act of recognizing one person as being unique from all other people.
Image Compression : Image compression is to reduce image data for storing or transmitting data more efficiently. Most common compressing methods are JPEG, MPEG and H.264.
Image Sensor : Image sensor is a device that converts optical images (light) into electric charge and processes it into electronic signals. CCD and CMOS are image sensors with different technologies for capturing images digitally; each has unique strengths and weaknesses giving advantages in different applications. Neither is categorically superior to the other, although vendors selling only one technology have usually claimed otherwise. CCD: Charge Coupled Device this has been is known in the market as per given below. CCD, HAD CCD, Super HAD CCD, Super HAD CCD II (760H or 960H), Ex-view HAD CCD, IT CCD, Progressive Scan CCD etc., COMS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor this has been known in the market as per given below. Proprietary sensor, DIS Sensor, QIS Sensor, HQIS & HDIS (Advanced Technology HD-SDI)
Immediate Deployment : The swift response of law enforcement to an ongoing life threatening situation.
Impact-Activated Audio : An alarm device activated by the sounds of an intrusion or unauthorized entry.
Incident Command System : An ICS divides an emergency response into five essential functions: Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance and Administration.
Incident Commander : Within an Incident Command System (ICS), an Incident Commander (IC) is a single individual responsible for overall management of the incident, including developing incident objectives and managing all incident operations.
Incident Transition : The point where an active shooter ceases violence and either attempts escape or barricade.
Indoor Positioning System : A network of devices used to wirelessly locate objects or people inside a building.
Info-Ready Reporting : A software development architecture that presents relevant system data directly within the application rather than having to run multiple external reports. NPower DNA allows operators to filter system events through simple drag and drop function as well as making common reports, such as “who has access”, available from the right click context menu.
Infrared Camera : Also called a thermographic camera, this is a device that forms an image using heat in the way that a common camera forms an image using visible light.
Infrared Light : Light with a wavelength that is too low to be seen by the human eye.
Infrared Motion Sensor : A sensing unit that detects motion based on the disruption of infrared light waves.
Ingress : Enter (opposite of egress).
Input voltage : The designed source requirement needed by equipment in order to operate properly.
Input : An electronic sensor on a controller that detects a change of state in a device outside the controller. See Normally-Closed, Normally-Open
Inrush : The initial surge of current through a load when power is first applied. Lamp loads, inductive motors, solenoids, and capacitive loads all have inrush or surge current. Resistive loads, such as heater elements, have no inrush.
Insertion Card : A card that must be inserted into a reader for the reader to retrieve the information stored on the card.
Instant Replay : This is a term used to describe a DVR’s ability to playback recorded information within a few seconds of the original recording. Most DVR’s record video in a buffer for a period of time before writing the information to the Disk Drive(s). The ability to retrieve video from the buffer before it is written to the drive allows an operator to review information immediately. This is very helpful in an attended system application where the operator is watching shoplifters in a store. The information
Integrated Public Alert and Warning System : IPAWS is FEMA’s internet-based system that allows government authorities at all levels to issue critical public alerts and warnings from a single portal or sign-in to multiple communication pathways.
Intelligent Device : Any type of microprocessor-based input, output, or sensor device that has free- standing logic capability. These devices can be programmed with instructions that allow them to make their own decisions regarding granting access and sounding alarms. They also can communicate with a host computer to receive new instructions or to send event message logs.
Interlace : Interlace 2:1 pattern described by two separate field scans when they join to form a complete video frame. As the video picture is transmitted, the first field picks up even-numbered scan lines – the second, odd- numbered ones. The two interleave together to form a single, complete frame.
Interlock : A system of multiple doors with controlled interaction. Interlocks are also known as light- traps, air- traps, man-traps, and sally-ports (see security interlock).
Intermittent duty solenoid : A solenoid designed to be energized for short periods of time. Continuous operation may damage an intermittent duty solenoid.
Intermittent duty solenoid : A solenoid designed to be energized for short periods of time
Internal Sync : Crystal Controlled camera that generates its sync pulses without reference to any other source. Normally using a crystal controlled oscillator. This is needed on non-mains powered cameras (Any generator or Inverter powered cameras).
International Association for Healthcare Security and Safety : Focusing on healthcare security, safety and emergency management, the IAHSS has four goals Education, Credentialing, Growth and Influence.
Internet : This is the term for the interconnection of computers on the “world wide web.” This is how you connect to your favorite websites and to remote DVRs.
Interoperability : The ability of emergency responders to work and communicate seamlessly with systems or products.
IP Address : An acronym for Internet Protocol. IP is a unique number/ IP address assigned by an internet authority that identifies a computer on the internet. The number consists of four groups of numbers between 0 and 255, separated by periods (dots). For example, http://126.96.36.199 is an IP address.
IP Cameras : These are IP based video cameras using IP networking as their basis rather than the traditional video signal used in broadcast and closed circuit systems.
IP66 : This stands for Ingress Protection. It is a measure of the ability of an enclosure to resist dust and water. It is expressed (usually) as two numbers as in IP66. This rating would mean your outdoor dome enclosure is totally resistant to dust and water entry. Some of these claims are overstated (like air holes in the dome skin when it’s rated as wind driven proof).
IPAWS : Acronym for Integrated Public Alert and Warning System.
IPS : Image Per Second is the combination of two interlaced fields. The frame frequency is half the field frequency. 50IPS = 25FPS (one ODD frame & one Even frame makes 1FPS )
IPv4 : IPv4 Internet Protocol Address form of IP address is a number address of 32 bits appearing by 4 numbers that is parted by period. Each number can be from to 255 from 0.
IPv6 : Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the next-generation Internet Protocol version designated as the successor to IPv4, the first implementation used in the internet that is still in dominant use currently. It is an Internet Layer Protocol for packet-switched internetworks. The main driving force for the redesign of Internet Protocol is the foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 was defined in December 1998 by the Internet
IR Camera : Refers to cameras that have IR LEDs installed that turn on in low light providing a usable image in even total darkness. The effectiveness and distance varies widely based on the number of LEDs and overall quality of the camera.
IR Cut Filter : IR light can distort colors in CCD and CMOS cameras. An IR filter is often used in cameras to filter out IR light during bright daylight conditions. An IR cut filter is automatically removed at low light to allow the camera to take advantage of IR light in lower light conditions. The camera usually switches to black and white operation at this time since B/W works better than color in low light.
IR Remote : This is similar to remote controls used with a variety of electronic devices. In CCTV context the IR Remote controls the DVR including all functions of the menu and PTZ control.
IR Synchronous : General process of precisely coordinating or matching two or more activities in a device for e.g. Magus ranges of products IR illuminator are synchronous with lenses in all most in all cameras. This may not be applicable for Optical Zoom camera & Fish Eye cameras where in Magus implement same thing in IR Speed Domes & Fish Eye Dome so customer can get best coverage even in night time.
IR : Infra-Red light is the wavelength of light produced below the visible part of the spectrum. Humans can’t see this light but cameras can. IR cameras use Infra-Red LEDs to light an area and provide usable (black and white) images in total darkness.
Iris : The mechanism can be adjusted to vary the amount of light falling on the imaging device.
ISDN : (Integrated Services Digital Network). ISDN telephone lines have a speed of 128Kbps (two 64K “B” channels). This type of connection is usually limited to businesses.
ISO 14443 : An international standard for contactless smart cards operating at 13.56 MHz, 14443 sets communication standards and transmission protocols between cards and card readers to create interoperability for contactless smart card products.
ISO : Acronym for International Organization for Standardization, the quality management system of a company.
ISP : This is an acronym for Internet Service Provider. ISPs provide your connection to the Internet.
JBOD : Acronym for Just a Bunch of Drives. This is typically similar in appearance to a RAID system. There is no redundant capability. You just keep filling the drives as one large storage capacity. JBOD can store as much as twice the capacity of RAID systems because of the redundant nature of RAID.
Key Tag : An access control identification device assigned to an individual to give that individual access rights to an access control system.
Keystone Correction : A projectors ability to correct the effects of “pointing up” or “pointing down” at a screen enabling the projector user’s audience to view a rectangular image rather than one with a wider top or bottom.
LAN : Abbreviation for Local Area Network. A Network of computers at one site that provides services to other computers connected to it. A LAN is usually limited to an immediate area, for example the floor of a building, a single building or a campus.
Landscape : Horizontal orientation of pages, screen displays or badges.
Latch : The locking of a circuit by means of a holding contact; used in relay logic when a momentary initiation is required.
Latching Relay : A relay that when set (either ON or OFF depending upon the relay configuration), locks into place until reset either manually or by a signal.
LCD : The abbreviation for Liquid Crystal Display.
LEA : Acronym for Local Education Agency.
Lease Line : See Dedicated Telephone Line.
LED : The abbreviation for Light Emitting Diode. A diode, a solid-state device, that gives off virtually heatless colored light when electric current is passed through it. LED’s are very efficient and long lasting and are often used for digital readouts and annunciators. Common colors include red, green, and amber.
Legacy : This term refers to existing products in the field. Some disappear quickly and some hang on seemingly forever. Manufacturers typically use the term to identify previously sold and now discontinued products that they are still obligated to service and support.
Lens : A transparent optical component that converges light rays to from a two dimensional image of that object.
LEO : Acronym for Law Enforcement Officer.
Level of Service : This is the degree of effort applied to the manufacturer’s service capability as measured in funding budget, number of service personnel, equipment, training etc.
Levels of Support : This refers to the individual levels of support functions in an organization. The terminology varies from company to company. The basic idea is this: Level #1 is the service tech at a customer site. Level #2 is whoever he calls for help. Level #3 is whoever Level #2 calls etc.
Line Drop : The drop in voltage along a power line caused by the resistance, reactance, and/or leakage in the line’s wires.
Line Lock : The sync pulses of cameras are locked to the AC mains frequency (50/60 Hz).
Line Powered Camera : A camera in which the power is supplied along the same coaxial cable that carries the video signal. This was once common before digital devices showed up in CCTV. The DC offset may destroy a DVR.
Line voltage : The voltage existing in a main cable or circuit, such as a wall outlet.
Linked alarms : Allow one alarm to trigger another. An example is an alarm on one camera may be configured to move another PTZ camera to a preset position.
Listed : Refers to equipment or material included in a list states that the equipment or material met appropriate standard or has been treated for and suited to a specific application.
Live Video : Live displays current activity. This can be at the camera location or at a remote site connected to the cameras through the Internet.
Load rating : A control specification outlining the type of load the minimum (min) the maximum (max) currents ands the voltage.
Load : Any device that converts the computer system’s digital information into analog information and transmits it over a telephone line. Another modem must be used when the information is converted back from analog to digital.
Local alarm : A visual or audible signaling device located at a monitored door, window or other opening.
Lock Relay Output : A relay on the controller that changes its state upon command by the controller, locking or unlocking a secure door.
Lock status sensor (LSS) : Relay type to operate the LED with an SPDT switch to indicate low voltage and tampering of the lock face locally or to a remote monitoring location.
Log : This log is a gathering of information about system operation. In a D VR it would list occurrences like log on/log off, menu access and changes, remote connections, and any other operation information that is relevant.
Logging : Creating and storing a permanent record of events that can be reviewed, printed, and analyzed.
Long Term Evolution : Commonly referred to as 4G, LTE is the standard adopted by the FCC for public safety broadband communications.
Long Wave Infrared : At this wavelength, sensors require no illumination such as the moon or infrared illuminator and cameras can obtain a completely passive image based on thermal emissions only.
Loop Out : This term refers to the additional BNC connectors installed for the purpose connecting the incoming video to additional devices. You will see these installed on many CCTV products.
LTE : An Acronym for Long Term Evolution.
Luminance : Brightness. This is the black and white portion of the composite video signal. See Chrominance.
Lux : It measures the amount of uniform light that falls on one square meter. Security camera specs use the lux to indicate how much light they require to operate, with lower lux levels indicating a camera as more effective in lower ambient light.
LWIR : Acronym for Long Wave Infrared.
MAC Address : A MAC address is a unique identifier associated with a piece of networking equipment, or more specifically, its interface with the network. For example, the network card in a computer has its own MAC address.
Machine Readable : A code or characters that can be read by machines.
Macro : A defined set of actions or commands that can be manually executed by the operator or is based on a trigger event.
Magnetic Contact : A device that sends a signal when the magnetic field between two monitored points is broken.
Magnetic Lock : A door lock made up of an electromagnet and a strike plate. The electromagnet is mounted in the door frame; the strike plate in the door. When power is applied to the electromagnet, the strength of the electromagnet keeps the door locked.
Magnetic Stripe Card : An access control card with a strip of recordable magnetic material, on which data is encoded.
Magnetic Stripe Reader : A reader capable of reading and interpreting cards using magnetic stripes to encode data.
Magnetic Stripe : A band of ferrous material that is sealed onto or into a card key or credit card used to encode cardholder information.
Maintained contact switch : A switch designed for applications requiring sustained contacts but with provision for resting.
Manual Recording : The function is ‘The Key Record’ that can be started to record, stop immediately by the record button of the front side or a remote controller, the record order of GUI.
Masking : Hiding or suppressing alarms that the operator does not wish to be viewed.
Mass Notification System : A means of sending a message to many recipients at once.
Mass Shooting : Four or more murders occurring during a particular event with no cooling-off period between the murders.
Master Code Card : An access control card that grants access and exit at every card reader on the system.
Matrix Switch : This is a very large device to manage large numbers of cameras, monitors and operator options. Don’t think boxes, think rows of equipment racks. A large Matrix Switch system can handle up to 4,000+ cameras and a couple of hundred monitors. You’ll find these installed in casinos, airports and hospitals. Miles of cable is Installed to connect each camera to the Matrix Switch.
Matrix Switcher : Matrix Switcher A switcher able to route any of its camera inputs any of its monitor output a name usually reserved for large systems that often includes telemetry control.
MD : Motion Detection a method of detecting movement in the view of the camera by the electronic analysis of the change in picture contrast.
Megapixel Lens : Megapixel imagers have more pixels than standard imagers. A standard lens can’t focus light fine enough to resolve to a single pixel in megapixel formats. Megapixel lens have additional optical elements that allow light to focus on individual pixels. You will see the difference if you test the same camera with both lenses. The megapixel advantage can be lost with a less effective lens.
Memory : The section of a host computer or a controller in which data and instructions are stored.
Menu : This is the generic term used to describe the setup screens in a variety of devices.
Minimization : A process of blacking out or discarding information to protect privacy or increase efficiency.
M-JPEG : Motion JPEG: This is a series of compressed JPEG images to produce a moving image. See M-JPEG, MPEG-4 and H.264.
MNS : Acronym for Mass Notification System.
Mode of operation : The specified operation condition of a switch, lock, door system, and so forth.
MODEM : A Modulator DeMulator. An electronic device that allows communication between electronic devices by converting computer serial data to an analog format that can be transmitted and received via telephone.
Momentary duty lock : An electric lock equipped with a solenoid that is energized only momentarily.
Momentary Switch : A spring loaded contact that when pressed, closes two contacts. When pressure is removed the contacts open.
Monochrome : Having only one color. In television it is black and white.
Motherboard : A master printed circuit board used to interface the activities of individual printed circuit boards and the devices being controlled monitored. The motherboard is usually located on the back of a control panel assembly; individual printed circuit boards plug into it.
Motion Alarms : Video motion alarms are triggered by recognizing changes in the video image. There is no physical connection causing the alarm condition.
MOV : Metal oxide varistor, a device used to prevent the emf generated by the locks from damaging the control.
MP : Megapixel refers to cameras with pixel content higher than NTSC/PAL formats. Current sizes of up to10 megapixels are available. The size will continue to grow. If you want to estimate the megapixel size used in security video next year just check the pixel size of consumer point and shoot cameras today.
MPEG-4 : Motion Picture Experts Group is a video compression method and is an improvement over M- JPEG providing smaller average usable file sizes. See M-JPEG, MPEG-4 and H.264.
MPG (Monitor Point Group) : A collection of monitor points that typically have been grouped for common manageability.
Multiplexer : An electronic system that can accept a number of camera inputs and record them virtually simultaneously. They can also provide multi-screen displays with four, nine, sixteen etc. cameras on the screen at once. Multiplexers can be used to transmit multiple pictures down a single video line whether it is a coaxial cable, microwave, infrared link etc. This requires a multiplexer at
N/O, N/C : Acronyms for Normally Open and Normally Closed. This refers alarm inputs/outputs and alarm devices. Most common alarm devices provide a contact closure to initiate the alarm. Some devices are normally an open circuit that closes a switch on alarm and others do the opposite. Most DVRs will accommodate either type with a menu selection.
NAS : Network Attached Storage (NAS) is a data storage mechanism that uses special devices connected directly to the network media.
National Electrical Code (NEC) : A consensus standard published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA); commonly called “code”.
National Emergency Management Association : A professional association of and for emergency management directors nationwide.
National Incident Management System : NIMS is a guidance document associated with NFPA 1561 and NFPA 1600.
National Instant Criminal Background Check System : A point of sale system mandated by the Brady Act and launched by the FBI, NICS provides a way to keep guns and explosives from getting into the wrong hands.
National Rifle Association : An organization dedicated to preserving 2nd Amendment gun rights and gun safety education.
National Threat Assessment Center : An agency of the United States Secret Service that developed the Safe Schools Initiative (SSI) in cooperation with the ED.
NBC : An Acronym for Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, typically used in a military context.
NEMA : Acronym for the National Emergency Management Association.
Network Bandwidth : This refers to the total amount of network traffic that is allowed on the network. A typical LAN connection is 100Mbps. All devices on that leg of the network share the available bandwidth. WAN traffic is much slower because of the slower connection to the outside world.
Network Camera : This refers to a network based camera. An IP camera can connect to an NVR. You can see the video with the NVR remote software. You can also connect directly to the network camera through a browser connection.
Network Switch : A hardware device used to connect multiple devices to a network. These devices usually have from four to 32 inputs. They can be connected together to make any size network.
Network Video Recorder : Typically IP based and abbreviated NVR, these are security surveillance applications.
Network : 1) A series of controllers, all connected via a communications cable. 2) A group of computers, all connected via a communications cable.
NFPA 1600 : The National Fire Prevention Association’s document for preparedness standards.
NFPA 731 : Standard for the Installation of Electronic Premises Security Systems.
NICS : Acronym for National Instant Criminal Background Check System.
NIMS : Acronym for National Incident Management System.
NIST SP 800-116 : Acronym for National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 800-116.
NIST Special Publication 800-116 : This National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication is a recommendation for the Use of PIV Credentials in Physical Access Control Systems (PACS) and a PIV Implementation Maturity Model (PIMM) to measure the progress of facility and agency implementations.
Node : Any device connected to the network. It could be a workstation PC, a server, a printer, etc. This can be any device with its own IP address on the network (including DVRs and IP cameras).
Noise : Any unwanted signal that affects the video signal. This is usually random electrical energy or interference. In video, noise can produce a random salt and pepper pattern over the picture. Heavy video noise is called snow.
Noise : The unwanted and/or unintelligible signals picked up on a cable circuit.
Normally-Closed : The state of an input device that continually keeps a circuit closed or complete until forced by an action or event to open that circuit. See Input.
Normally-Open : The state of an input device that continually keeps a circuit open or incomplete until forced by an action or event to close that circuit. See Input.
NRA : Acronym for National Rifle Association.
NRTL Certificated Service : Alarm systems that have a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) certificate in force.
NTAC : Acronym for National Threat Assessment Center.
NTP : Acronym for Network Time Protocol: This network feature allows the time on PCs to be time synced with a server on the network. This assures that all network devices are systematically corrected to the same time at selected intervals.
NTSC : National Television Systems Committee of the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) which prepared the NTSC format specifications approved by the Federal Communications Commission, for US commercial color broadcasting. `NTSC’ also refers to a color television format having 525 scan lines, a field frequency of 60 Hz, a broadcast bandwidth of 4 MHz, line frequency of 15.75 KHz, frame
NVR : This is an acronym for Network Video Recorder. An NVR is a server hardware platform with proprietary video recording software installed. NVRs are designed to operate with IP cameras
OCSP : Acronym for Online Certificate Status Protocol.
ODD : Acronym for Optical Disk Drive (CD/DVD).
OFC : Optic Fiber cable this refers to a communication hardware method using fine fiber optic tubes to transmit light pulses. Standard data communication methods can be converted to fiber and back again at the receiving end. This can be pricy but very effective over miles of distance.
Ohm : The unit of measurement of resistance.
One-Way Audio : A type of audio verification capable of being activated by the initiation of another security device.
Online Certificate Status Protocol : An Internet protocol used for access control by obtaining the revocation status of an X.509 digital certificate.
Online Help : A reference program within most software programs that provides basic descriptions and instructions on how to use that software program.
ONVIF : Acronym for Open Network Video Interface Forum. This is a growing standard for IP camera interface. For e.g. Magus professional IP series based on ONVIF protocol it’s compatible with many major brand like Axis, ACTi, Bosch, CNB, Dahua, Everfocus, Hikvision, iCaNTek, JVC, Honeywell, Magus, Panasonic, Pelco, Samsung, Sony, Tele Eye, Vivotek and many more.
Operating Humidity : The device can operate is the humidity range.
Operating Temperature : The device can operate is the relative operating temperature range.
Operating voltage : The voltage by which a system operates; a nominal voltage with a specified tolerance applied; the design voltage range necessary to remain within the operating tolerance. For example, for a system specified 120 volts +/- 10 percent of normal, 120 volts is the nominal voltage and the design voltage range is 108 to 132 volts AC.
Operator : Anyone with access to the application. The Administrator is also an Operator, though generally distinguished in the documentation due to the difference in responsibility and permissions.
Optical Zoom : This is the normal zoom capability of a variable focal lens. Example: A 5mm to 50mm zoom lens can be positioned any distance with no loss in video quality. By comparison, digital zoom enlarges the image but reduces the quality.
OR Gate : A logic circuit that requires that any input must be in a high state (logic 1) to generate a high state output (logic 1).
OS : Operating System this is the program that controls the basic operations of a computer. Examples are Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP, Linux, Apple, and UNIX.
OSD : Acronym for On Screen Display.
OSI : Open Systems Interconnection OSI model are the rules for network communication that the TCP/IP protocol carries out.
Output Relay : A device that changes its state upon receiving a signal from a controller. Typically the state change prompts an action outside of the controller such as activating or inactivating a device. The auxiliary relays found in access control panels or NODES that control external devices.
Output voltage : The designed power source produced by a power supply to operate equipment.
Over all Zoom : Refers to camera zoom capability. This is the total of optical zoom and digital zoom. Example: Optical zoom 37X and digital zoom 16X = 592x is overall zoom.
P2P : Peer to Peer is a network where all users can share information equally. You share the information on each computer’s drives with all the other computers in the workgroup. The workstations (each PC) communicate directly with each other.
PAL : Phase Alternation Line; the European standard color television system, except for France. PAL’s image format is 4:3, 625 lines, 50 Hz and 4 MHz video bandwidth with a total 8 MHz of video channel width.
Panel : Synonymous with an SSP. See Controller.
Panic Bar : A device, usually a small electrical switch in a mounting plate, used for unlocking a door in an emergency. A quick release door lock allowing the door to be quickly opened in the case of an emergency situation. Also Known As – Crash Bar.
Parking Gate : A barrier that can be opened or closed to control vehicular access
Passive Infrared (PIR) Detector : A motion sensing device, often used for intrusion detection systems, can also be used to unlock a door as someone wishing to egress approaches.
Passive Infrared Detector : The most commonly used motion sensor, a PIR detects body heat to determine the motion of an intruder.
Password/ Passcode : is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone) as authentic i.e. that claims made by or about the subject are true.
Password : The permission level of the operator environment. Required for permission to log on to the application.
Patch Panel : A panel where circuits are terminated and facilities provided for interconnecting between circuits by means of jacks and plugs.
Pattern Generator : Special test pattern for adjusting color TV receivers or color encoders. The upper portion consists of vertical bars of saturated colors and white. The power horizontal bars have black and white areas and I and Q signals.
Pattern : Refers to PTZ cameras. You can save a series of camera movements and then replay the pattern of movements. Just select the Pattern number from the PTZ GUI.
PC based DVR : This is a DVR that is based on a standard PC hardware platform. There
PC : An acronym for Personal Computer.
Peak to Peak : The measurement of any signal from the lowest value to the highest. In a composite or full video signal, this should be 1 Volt.
Pentaplex : devices can perform five different tasks at the same time. Real time DVRs are all Pentaplex devices which can record, playback, live view, remote live view, remote search, and remote configuration change simultaneously. 11 & 21 series support the same. This indicates the device’s capacities.
PERS : Acronym for Personal Emergency Response System.
Personal Emergency Response System : A medical alert system that contacts a central station when a button is pressed.
Personal Identification Number (PIN) : A unique numerical code used to identify an individual.
Personal Identity Verification (PIV) : requirements for federal employees and contractors. The Department of Commerce and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were tasked with producing a standard for secure and reliable forms of identification. In response, NIST published Federal Information Processing Standard Publication 201. The program includes the technical requirements for improving the identification and authentication of federal employees and contractors.
Personal Identity Verification : A smart card issued by the Federal Government that contains the necessary data access to Federal facilities and information systems.
Photo Badging : See Badging Software.
Physical Security Information Management : A form of middleware that integrates multiple, often unconnected, security devices and systems.
Physical Security Professional : A board certification of ASIS involving over 100 multiple choice questions.
Piggybacking : 1) More than one individual entering a secure area using one access card. 2) Following an authorized person into a secure area. Also Known As – Tailgating. See Anti Pass back.
PIN : A Personal Identification Number assigned to a user. It is used either by itself or in conjunction with a card.
Ping : Ping is a computer network administration utility used to test whether a particular host is reachable across an Internet Protocol (IP) network and to measure the round-trip time for packets sent from the local host to a destination computer, including the local host’s own interfaces.
Pinhole Lens : Lens used for applications where the camera/lens must be hidden. Front of lens has a small opening to allow the lens to view an entire room through a small hole in a wall.
PIR : A Passive Infrared sensor (PIR sensor) is an electronic device that measures infrared (IR) light radiating from objects in its field of view. PIR sensors are often used in the construction of PIR – based motion detectors. Apparent motion is detected when an infrared source with one temperature, such as a human, passes in front of an infrared source with another temperature,
PIV : Acronym for Personal Identity Verification (Card).
Pixel : Picture element. This is the smallest software addressable point on the image. The number of pixels in an image is measured horizontally first, then vertical (ex. 320×240).
Player Software : This is the generic term used to identify software used to review exported DVR video in a standard PC. The proprietary DVR video format requires this software to play the video in a PC and it is usually exported to the device along with the video. Some manufacturers require you to install the player on your PC. Others run directly from the device (thumb drive, DVD, etc.).
Plug n Play : Plug n Play basically means that the product is pre-configured in such a way it may require 0 configurations by the end user or system integrator.
POE : Acronym for Power over Ethernet. This is a network device that provides power to a device using one of theCAT-5 cable twisted pairs. This is an installation advantage eliminating the need for a locally installed AC outlet.
Port : It means connect point between DVR and other devices. For e.g. default port for http 80, FTP 21, SMTP 25 likewise.
Portrait : Vertical orientation of pages, screen display or badges.
POS : An acronym for Point Of Sale. This usually refers to cash register data.
Post Alarm : In record on alarm only mode a DVR can be set to record for a specific amount of time when an alarm is encountered. This time period after the alarm is called Post Alarm.
Potentiometer (pot) : Variable resistor, manually adjustable.
Power over Ethernet : PoE provides power to a network device such as an IP camera.
PPPoE : It means assigning a changeable IP address to a DVR to connect DVRs at remote places.
Pre Alarm : In record on alarm only mode a DVR hard drive is not recording until an alarm is encountered. Some number of seconds or minutes prior to the alarm event can be recovered from a software buffer that is continuously overwriting itself. The video recovered from prior to the alarm is called Pre Alarm.
Pre-Alarm Held : An alert given before an opened door reports “held open” alarm.
Preset : The pre-positioning of pan, tilt and zoom cameras by the use of potentiometers in the moving parts of the camera head. These allow the control equipment to store and move to a set reference
Primary Code : The main identification information provided by an individual to gain access to a secure area. See Auxiliary Code.
Primary : The transformer winding that received energy from a supply circuit.
Printed circuit board : A means of making electrical interconnections without using insulated wires. Printed circuit boards provide a supporting and insulating medium for component and conductors in a form that is readily adaptable to mat assembly.
Privacy Mask : This function is use to purpose to hide specific area for protecting individual privacy area
Privacy Zones : This refers to the ability of a camera to mask parts of its normal viewing area to prevent the operator from viewing the protected areas. This can be in fixed cameras or in PTZ cameras. The intelligence for operating this feature can be included in a dome, a DVR or in a Matrix switch.
Private Networks : The term private network is pretty generic. Generally it means that the network is restricted to specific users. This could range from a separate grouping of computers connected locally, two LANs connected together through a phone connection, to a complex “Intranet” that is accessed through the Internet, yet only available to authorized users. The Intranet version is often referred to as a “Virtual Private Network.” In the case of Digital Video Recorders and their remote software connections, we refer to a private network as a separate grouping of security devices that are not connected directly to the normal company business network. The advantage of this private network is that you have all the bandwidth available for a specific purpose and you will not affect other company business in the case of a failure.
Programmable Card Reader : A card reader in which instructions for granting or denying access may be programmed.
Programmable Card : A card in which data may be encoded.
Progressive Scan : The progressive scan format outputs data from the camera (the signal) in sequential order as it is scanned. The scan format produces a full frame of video in a continuous stream, rather than half the image per output sequence in traditional RS-170 CCD cameras. Standard RS-170 video is interlaced and output in two separate fields, generating essentially half the image at a time. With Cohu’s new 6600 Series Progressive Scan Camera, a new, full image is output from the camera every 1/60th second, making it ideal for machines to more quickly process and display information, or act according to programmed instructions.
Proprietary : In CCTV context proprietary indicates a non-standard method of accomplishing something. This may be good or bad depending on the results. Some proprietary software solutions were developed by manufacturers before the current standards were implemented. Some are attempts to intentionally circumvent the ability to work with other manufacturer’s equipment. Most were just developed separately with no thought of how anyone else approached the same issue.
Protocol : In CCTV context a protocol is the command set used to control one device from another. An example is that each manufacture develops their own code to send commands to PTZ domes. This is why you see so many options for camera control in DVRs. The protocol is the software element. The hardware element is RS-422, RS-485, etc.
Proximity Card : A card using proximity technology to store and transmit encoded data.
Proximity Reader : A reader capable of reading and interpreting cards using radio frequency identification to encode data.
Proximity : A non-contact system for reading cards. Data is exchanged between card and reader by radio frequency, fiber optics, induction, laser or other non-mechanical contact technology.
PSIM : Physical Security Information Management is a concept where all security systems are tied together (video, access control, fire and safety, etc.) to provide a cohesive picture of your security capability. Several manufactures claim that their equipment is PSIM capable. Detractors point out that the PSIM claim is limited to products in each manufactures product line and not tied to an open standard that will allow individual products to work together.
PSP : Acronym for Physical Security Professional.
PSTN : Public Switched Telephone Network standard phone lines used to dial automatically during event. For e.g. our MALP1000TWLR & MALP1604THBR are based on PSTN landline telephone.
PTZ Dome : A fully contained PTZ mechanism and camera installed in the same dome housing.
PTZ : Pan Tilt Zoom a device that can be remotely controlled to provide both vertical and horizontal movement for a camera, with zoom. This is a movable mechanical base for a camera.
Push-Button Lock : A locks that opens when a set of push-buttons are pressed in sequence or in unison.
QCIF : CIF defines a video sequence with a resolution of 352 × 288. QCIF means “Quarter CIF”. To have one fourth of the area as “quarter” implies the height and width of the frame are halved.
QPL : The Qualified Products List, published by TSA, includes biometric technology that can be used for airport access control. Being on the QPL ensures the product has passed testing conducted by NIST.
QSG : Acronym for Quick Start Guide. A QSG is a short manual or pamphlet shipped with a product to assist the installer/operator in completing the initial installation.
QSXGA : QSXGA is a display resolution of 2560×2048 pixels with a 5:4 aspect ratio.
Quad Screen : Display where 4 cameras are viewed on the same screen, each camera image occupying a quarter of the display area. Quad screens can be seen in devices with any number of camera inputs. The quad screen is just one of several multi-screen formats available.
Quad : The name given to a video device that displays four cameras on a single monitor. The quad hardware digitizes each of the four camera images and resizes them to fit in the quad format.
QVGA : QVGA display with 320 x 240 display resolution. The name comes from having a quarter of the 640 × 480 maximum resolution of the original IBM VGA display technology.
QXGA : QXGA is a display resolution of 2048×1536 pixels with a 4:3 aspect ratio.
19″ Rack : An industrial standard housing 19” Rack Mount.
RA : Acronym for Resident Advisor.
Radio Frequency Identification : A method of reading a card using radio frequency energy to transmit information from the card to a reader. See Proximity.
RAID : An acronym for Redundant Array of Independent Drives. There are several different levels of RAID devices. The key is that if one of the drives fails, the information from that device is retained in the remaining drives. The different RAID levels range from storing all information in two separate locations, to using software gymnastics to share information on all drives so that any single drive failure will not allow any loss of data.
RAM : See Random Access Memory.
Random Access Memory (RAM) : Randomly addressable, readable and writable memory (either volatile or nonvolatile) whose contents may be read or be altered at will.
Rated voltage : The maximum voltage at which electric component can operate for extended periods without undue degradation or safety hazard.
RCA Connector : The connector used with TVs and audio systems.
RCA Jack : This is a standard connection used for audio. These connections are typically used for audio in CCTV.
Read Only Memory (ROM) : Nonvolatile memory whose contents are programmed into the ROM when the ROM is made, and therefore cannot be altered. ROM is typically used to store programs and fixed data sets.
Reader : A device that can read the encoding on a card or badge. Refers to the “front end” that a user must interact with to allow access. Readers can be keypads, card readers, proximity readers, etc.
Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools : REMS operates a Techical Assistance (TA) Center with publications on school preparedness.
Real Time Command : A command that is executed immediately, with no time delay.
Real Time Location System : Automatically identifies and tracks the location of objects or people in real time, usually within a building or other contained area.
Received Signal Strength : The intensity of the received signal by the Wireless Access Point.
Record Duration : In CCTV context record duration refers to the amount of time that a DVR will record before writing over the database with newer information.
Rectifier : A solid-state electrical device that will allow current to flow in one direction only. It is designed to convert alternating current to direct current.
Recycle time : The time needed to reset and rein the timing function and remain within the specified timing tolerance. Recycle time is generally specific “during timing” or a “after timing”.
Regulated power supply : A power supply provides a constant output regardless of voltage variation.
Relay : A device that is capable of opening a normally-closed circuit or closing a normally-open circuit. When the relay is not energized, the normally-closed circuit is complete and the normally-open circuit is open. When the relay is energized, it switches roles, opening the normally-closed circuit and closing the normally-open circuit. This dual nature of a relay allows for two types of applications: a device may be attached to the normally-closed circuit so that the device is always on until the relay energizes to turn it off, or a device may be attached to the normally-open circuit so that the device is always off until the relay energizes to turn it on.
Remote alarm : A visual or audibly signaling device used to signal violations at locations removed from the central control station or monitored open. For example, a remote alarm may be placed roof, in a stair tower, or at guard station outside a building.
Remote Host : A system where the main computer that controls the system is remotely located. It allows a single computer to control multiple systems.
Remote reset : A switch located at a monitored opening. If a violation occurs, the alarm at the control console cannot be turned off until the area is secured and the remote reset is activated. Its purpose is to ensure the inspection of an opening that has been violated or left open.
Remote reset : A switch located at a monitored opening. If a violation occurs, the alarm at the control console cannot be turned off
REMS : Acronym for Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools.
Request to Exit (RTE) : A signal that informs the controller that someone has requested to exit from a secure area.
Reset time : The time required to return the output to its original condition.
Resident Advisor : Alternatively called a Resident Assistant, RA’s are residence hall community leaders, typically providing counseling and assistance to students.
Resistance : The opposition to the flow of an electric current (measured in ohms); the reciprocal of conductance.
Resistor : A circuit element whose chief purpose opposes the flow of current, causing a decrease in voltage.
Resolution : Analog video resolution is based on viewing a test pattern and determining the “TV lines of resolution” number by how well you can differentiate a series of converging lines before the black and white lines fade to gray. This is very subjective and rarely accurate. This method depends on the other equipment used to be a higher quality than the tested device. In digital products like DVR, NVR & IP camera resolution is the same as the pixel count. Using the analog test pattern method the resolution number will always be smaller than the pixel count.
REX Button : A Request to exit button. A device that must be pushed in order to release the door.
RF : Radio Frequency Signals with a repetition rate above audible range, but below the frequencies associated 4 with heat and light.
RFID : Radio-Frequency Identification refers to small electronic devices that consist of a small chip and an antenna. The antenna is capable of longer distances than proximity card technology and can be tracked continuously regardless of whether the individual is next to a card reader.
RG-59 : A video coaxial cable with 75 Ohm characteristic impedance. A type of coaxial cable that is most common in use in small to medium-size CCTV systems. It has an outer diameter of approx. 6 mm and it is a good compromise between maximum distances achievable (up to 266m) and good transmission.
ROM : Read Only Memory is an electronic chip, containing digital information that does not disappear when power is turned off.
Router : This is the hardware device that provides a gateway to the Internet.
RS232 : A commonly used computer serial interface.
RS-232 : A serial communication protocol used for connecting data terminal devices. RS-232 is the most commonly used communication protocol.
RS-485 : A serial communication protocol used for multi-drop communication applications. It is used for higher speed and longer distance communications.
RS485 : It is used to communicate between DVR and peripheral device such as keyboard or speed dome to control the camera’s movement via RS-485 communication style. This is an advanced format of digital communications compared to RS-232. It is a balanced line transmission system. It is classically a half-duplex 2 wire presentation.
RT : Real Times there are several interpretations of this phrase. Most people refer to it as full motion video, just like TV (25FPS in PAL). For e.g. Our 11 & 21 series DVR are Real Time in Live, Playback & even in Network.
RTE : See Request to Exit.
RTLS : Acronym for Real Time Location System.
S/N Ratio : Signal to Noise Ratio Measure of noise levels of a video signal. A measurement of the noise level in a signal is expressed in dB (decibels). A higher Signal to Noise ratio provides a higher quality signal.
SAAS : Acronym for Software as a Service.
Safe Schools Initiative : A study conducted by the US Secret Service.
SATA : Acronym for Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. This is the cable that connects a PC motherboard to a disk drive or optical drive. It is a thin round cable providing serial communication. This is a newer technology than traditional parallel connections (ribbon cables). So you must know what type of drive each DVR requires.
Save : An action to record information in the database. See Download.
Scanning : The rapid movement of the election beam in a pickup device of a camera or in the CRT of a television receiver. It is formatted in a line-for-line manner across the photo sensitive surface which produces or reproduces the video picture. When referred to a video surveillance field, it is the panning or the horizontal camera motion
Scene Illumination : The density of light falling on the area to be viewed. For best results the ratio of the lightest to the darkest areas should not be more than a factor of two.
Schedule Recording : This function is record the image during the given time by the setting.
Schedule : Programming of an access control system that automatically locks and unlocks doors, or that performs other functions based on day and time.
School Resource Officer : Involves the placement of law enforcements officers in schools.
Screen Splitter : A term usually used for a device that can combine the views from two cameras on a single screen. Normally the camera syncs need to be locked together.
SDK : Acronym for Software Developer’s Kit. This provides enough information for a third party to develop Software that will interface with your device.
Search : In CCTV context search refers to methods used to find video in a recorded database. Typical search methods are by time/date, alarm list, smart search by video movement.
SECAM : Sequential Color A Memoire (sequential color with memory), the French color TV system also adopted inRussia. The basis of operation is the sequential recording of primary colors in alternate lines. The image format is 4:3, 625 lines, 50 Hz and 6-MHz video bandwidth with a total 8 MHz of video channel width.
Secondary : The transformer winding that receives energy by electromagnetic induction from primary. Generally the output of the transformer to the low voltage device.
Secure Area : A designated area in which access into and out of is controlled and can be monitored.
Secure Door : A door in which access through is controlled and can be monitored.
Security condition sensor (scs) : A sensitive crystal relay to operate the LED with an SPOT switch indicate low voltage and tampering of the lock locally or to a remote monitoring location. Primarily used in high security applications.
Security Industry Alarm Coalition : Non-profit industry organization with a goal to reduce false alarms that result in false dispatches by law enforcement.
Security Industry Association : Advances the interests of the global security industry.
Security interlock : A multi-door system in which doors are normally closed and locked; releasing doors disables the releases for release for all other doors until the first door is closed and relocked.
Security Management System : A software category that typically provides a single source for managing all aspects of security control.
Shelter In Place : An emergency procedure that involves taking immediate shelter in a readily accessible location, such as a small room, and sealing it from the outside.
Shielding : Providing electrical isolation for a circuit, component, or wire by enclosing or isolating the circuit, component, or wire with a metal enclosure, plate, or foil that blocks any interfering electrical field.
Short Circuit : An unintentional connection that provides a low resistance path between two points in a circuit or between a point in a circuit and ground. A Short Circuit can drastically affect the operation of a circuit. If excessive current flow results from the Short Circuit, a device may be damaged or ruined.
Shunt Time : The time in seconds that a door-open alarm is suppressed after the door has been opened. When a door is released the status switch is automatically “shunted” for a period of time to allow the person to enter/exit. If the time is exceeded a door held open signal will occur.
Shunt : Electrical term for bypassing. In access control it is common to shunt an alarm sensor, such as a door position switch, when a door is about to be opened for valid access or egress.
Shutter : Ability to control the integration (of light) time to the sensor to less than 1/60 second; e.g. stop motion of moving traffic.
SIA : Acronym for the Security Industry Association.
SIAC : Acronym for the Security Industry Alarm Coalition.
Signature Verification : A biometric identification method using a person’s signature characteristics (writing speed, pen pressure, shape of loops, etc.) to identify that person.
Silent Alarm : A communication system used to alert authorities without alerting the perpetrators.
SIM : Subscriber Identification Module a removable card this can be inserted in MDVR, GSM Alarm panel & guard tour system which enables tracking movement for vehicle / guard this enable remote connectivity between dynamic to static location.
Simplex : A multiplexer with 1 frame store that can either time multiplex records or show multi – screen pictures in live or play back. It cannot record the multiplexer pictures whilst showing multi- screen pictures.
Single pole, double throw (SPDT) : A term used to describe a switch or relay contact from (1form C), that has a normally open and a normally closed contact with a common connection.
Single pole, single throw (SPST) : A switch with one moving and one stationary contact, available either normally open (NO) or normal closed.
Smart Card : A plastic card with an embedded microchip, which can be used to store information about the cardholder or record card transactions as they occur.
SMART : Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology S.M.A.R.T. is a monitoring system for HDD to detect and report on various indicator of reliability in the hope of anticipation failures before they happen (drives, fans, temperature, etc.).
SMS : Acronym for Security Management System.
SMTP : Acronym for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (refers to Internet mail).
Software as a Service : A subscription-based model where a monthly fee is charged for using software, rather than an upfront purchase.
Solenoid : An electro-mechanical device that operates the lockbolt. When electricity is applied, a mechanical motion is obtained that moves the bolt.
Special Response Team : A SRT is responsible for responding to various types of incidents including active shooters, barricaded subjects, hostage-taking situations, search/arrest warrant operations, dignitary protection missions and other high-risk tactical operations.
Special Weapons and Tactics : An elite tactical unit of many law-enforcement agencies, typically employing paramilitary techniques and weapons.
Spike : A voltage peak of high amplitude and short duration. See Transients.
Spot Monitor : This is a secondary monitor connected to a DVR, Multiplexer, etc. This is also called a Call Monitor. The video displayed is typically a single image. Some units provide multiple outputs.
Spree Shooter : The general definition of spree killer is a person (or more than one person) who commits two or more murders without a cooling-off period, according to the FBI.
Spring latch : A plain latch switch, a beveled latch bolt that is activated by springs.
SPW : The SAME code for Shelter in Place.
SRO : Acronym for School Resource Officer.
SRT : Acronym for Special Response Team.
SSI : Acronym for the Safe Schools Initiative.
SSID : The service set identifier (SSID) is chosen by the client device that starts the network.
SSNR : Samsung Super Noise Reduction is a state-of-the-art technology exclusively developed by Samsung and SSNRIII is the 3rd generation technology features powerful functions. Camera can provide virtually the same image of what it actually sees by remarkably reducing random and fixed noise under low illumination. It’s a trade mark products of Samsung Techwin.
SSP (also SSP-C, and SSP-E) : Synonymous with panel and controller. See Controller.
Standalone System : A device that runs independently without the need to be connected with other devices.
Standalone : In access control, this term usually refers to a device that identifies the user (keypad, reader, etc.) and that makes an access decision. Some standalone units also contain a locking device and/or a power source.
Static IP Address : This is the name given to a manually entered IP address. In large networks IP addresses are usually automatically assigned by DHCP.
Static Situation : A term of art for situations where the suspect’s actions appear to be contained.
Status switch : A magnetic contact mounted on the controlled door. It is used to detect door held or door forced.
STP : Screened Twisted Pair cables have a conducting shield made of metallic foil encasing the twisted wire pairs, which blocks out electromagnetic interference, allowing it to carry data at a faster rate of speed known as network cable CAT 5 STP or CAT 6 STP
Strike Plate : A plate, usually made of metal, mortised into or mounted on the door jamb to accept and restrain a bolt when the door is closed.
Strike : A plate mortised into or mounted on the door jamb to accept and restrain a bolt when the door is closed.
Sub-controller : One of a series of circuit boards that communicates information about field devices like readers, contacts, motion detectors, etc., upstream to the SSP. (RSC-1, RSC-2, RSC-T, ISC-16, and OSC-16)
Subnet Mask : This is a 32 bit binary number used as part of IP addressing. Each octet is expressed as a number between zero and 255. The subnet mask numbers define the network number.
Suppression : The addition of a device to an electrical circuit that minimizes or prevents transients from affecting the proper operation of that circuit.
SVGA : Refers to a computer signal that is higher than the standard VGA resolution of 640 pixels by 480 lines with 16 or 256 colors. SVGA graphics cards may output resolutions such as 1024 x 768, 1280 x 1024, 1600 x 1200 pixels or higher, with 16.7 million colors displayed.
S-Video : Type of video signal used in the SVHS videotape format. S-video transmits luminance and color portions separately, using multiple wires, thus avoiding the color encoding process and its inevitable loss of picture quality. This provides the video and sync signals on different wires.
Swatting : A horrible prank where multiple police officers and/or a SWAT team are summoned to a victim’s house.
Switch : A device used to either connect or interrupt an electronic circuit.
Switcher : A device used to switch the video signal from two or more camera on a monitor.
Tailgating : 1) More than one individual entering a secure area using one access card. 2) Following an authorized person into a secure area. Also Known As – Piggybacking. See Anti Pass back.
Tamper : (1) A digital input that, if open, signals a cabinet tamper alarm at the device. (2) A digital input that signals power loss alarm at the device.
Targeted Violence : Any violent incident where a known or knowable attacker selects a particular target prior to their violent attack.
Task Manager : This is the Windows Task Manager program that allows you to view Applications, Processes, Performance, Networking and Users information. Right click on the lower Windows Task bar and select Task Manager from the popup menu. Task Manager can be very useful for checking CPU usage and network traffic in a video network.
TCP/IP : This is an acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. This is the most common protocol for communicating through the Internet.
Telemetry : The system by which a signal is transmitted to a remote location in order to control CCTV equipment. Example: To control pan and tilt and zoom functions, switch on lights, move to preset positions etc. The controller at the operator position is the transmitter and there is a receiver at the remote (camera) location. The signal can be transmitted along a simple `twisted pair’ cable or along the same coaxial cable that carries the video signal using UTC.
Telephone Entry : An access control system that allows users outside a secure area to use a telephone to contact someone inside the secure area and request access.
Thumb Drive : A small USB memory device. Connect it to a USB port to import and export files. These devices are commonly used to export video from a DVR, upgrade firmware, etc. These are also called Flash Drives.
Thumbnail : Refers to a small individual camera image.
Time and Attendance : A system for recording worker arrival and departure times for the purpose of payroll or other management functions.
Time Schedules : Consist of time ranges that are associated with days or holidays. Time Schedules are used in connection with access levels and often as trigger events.
Time zones : A period of time that has been programmed into an access control system during which authorized users either can or cannot gain access.
Touch screen : A system by which all the camera controls are displayed on the screen of a special monitor. To control any function simply requires the screen to be touched at the appropriate symbol which can be to select a camera, Unlock door, MP3 player etc., for e.g. our 7” WDP support touch screen function.
Touchpad : See Keypad.
Tour : Refers to PTZ control: You can select a series of cameras, Presets and Patterns into a tour. This will switch from one camera, preset or pattern to another in the order and for the time selected. The result is a tour (the name is derived from a guard tour where the guard physically goes from location to location) of video from a central location.
Transaction : A record created that contains pertinent information about an occurrence in the access control and monitoring system.
Transformer : An electric device that changes voltage in direct proportion to current and in inverse proportion to the ratio of the number of turns of primary and secondary windings. The output low- voltage side is called the transformer secondary.
Transient Suppressor : A device that protects data lines from high transient such as lighting and inductive loads. They are recommended where there are data communications lines between the reader and its electronics which are subject to high-transient situations. Two are required: one at each end of the exposed communications lines.
Transient : Any increase or decrease in the excursion of voltage, current, power, heat and so forth, above or below a nominal value that is not normal to the source.
Transients : Electrical surges or spikes conducted through power or data lines. Transients are typically generated as electrical devices are turned on or off. See: Suppression.
Transorb : An electrical suppression device. See: Supperssion.
Trigger : A system event that causes another event or macro to occur.
Triplex : devices are capable of three tasks at the same time (usually record, playback, and remote live view functions).
Turnstile : An entryway that uses a mechanical device to restrict entry to one person at a time.
TWIC : Transportation Worker Identification Credential. TWICs are tamper-resistant biometric credentials for workers who require unescorted access to secure areas of ports, vessels, outer
Twisted Pair : A cable that consists of one or more pairs of insulated wires that are twisted around one another. Twisted pair is often specified for circuits carrying data
Two-Way Audio : An event driven, two-way, hands free communications session between the premise and the monitoring facility.
UDP : (User Datagram Protocol): Transfers information between two applications. Usually used for messages or commands between applications. The data is not guaranteed accurate as with TCP.
US-VISIT : Using digital finger scans and photographs, the federal government checks visitors to the U.S. against a database of known criminals and suspected terrorists.
Varifocal Lens : This is a lens with a manually adjusted focal length. The field of view can be adjusted easily after the camera is installed. This simplifies installation with one lens type accommodating multiple locations.
VDA : Video Distribution Amplifier a special amplifier for buffering the video signal so that it can be supplied to a number of items of equipment at the same time. Each output will need to be individually terminated at 75 Ohms.
Verification : Identifying an individual based on some type of provided information. Verification may be done using by methods such as access cards, biometric information, PIN, etc.
Verified Response : A public policy that requires a property owner or another eyewitness to go to the scene of an alarm and verify a crime before police will respond.
Vertical Resolution : The total number of horizontal lines that can be perceived in the vertical direction of the screen.
VGA : Vector Graphics Array. The standard computer monitor is a VGA.
Video Amplifier : A wideband amplifier used for passing picture signals.
Video Analytics : This is the generic term used to identify any number of software based video tools used to make determinations based on the changing video content of a camera. A few examples of video analytics are: Auto tracking, missing object, Unattended object, people count, Face detection etc.
Video Clip : This is a (usually) short video saved from a database to document an issue. The video clip can be reviewed in a PC and maintained as a record of the incident. A video clip is often provided to the police to investigate an incident and/or used as evidence in a court case.
Video Decoder : A video decoder is a device which does the reverse of an encoder. It converts digital signal to analog signal.
Video Format : Ability of projection units to transmit and receive data to read and/or project various video files standards such as NTSC, PAL, SECAM and S-VHS.
Video Guard Tour : A class of monitoring service in which a central station “tours” a facility using cameras instead of a physical guard.
Video Loss : This does not come in the state of the video (image) inputs. Video input line cut or the camera is turned off, etc. This means that the state does not transmit video.
Video Loss : This term refers to cameras that were once an active part of the system (connected to a DVR) and the video signal has been lost. This provides an alarm to alert the operator to the video lost situation. This loss could be due to vandalism or to a component failure. Most likely it is due to a bad cable connection.
Video Motion Detection : A technology that automatically finds differences in a series of video images.
Video Server : Video server converts analog video signals into network video streams. This is also known in the market by the name of Encoder. This can convert analog cameras into an IP stream.
Video Surveillance as a Service : A managed data service that transfers the monitoring and storage of video to the cloud.
Video Verification : A type of alarm monitoring service where a human operator visually confirms the event that triggered the alarm.
VMD : Acronym for Video Motion Detection.
VMS : Video Management System is a Monitoring / Management software used to manage multiple DVR and NVR systems. The name may change from company to company.
Voice Recognition System : An access control system that verifies a person’s identity by comparing previously stored voice recordings key words or phrases with the same key words or phrases spoken at the time access is requested.
VoIP : Abbreviation for Voice over Internet Protocol, i.e. audio communication using the Internet instead of telephones
Volt (V) : A unit of electromotive force, It is the difference of potential required to make a current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm.
Volt/amp (VA) rating : The product of rated input voltage multiplied by the rated current. This establishes “apparent energy” available accomplish work.
Voltage drop : Voltage loss experience by electric circuit due to two principal factors: (1) wire size and (2) length of wire runs.
Voltage : The term most often used (in place of electromotive force, potential, potential difference or voltage drop) to designate electrical pressure that exists between two points and is capable of producing between the two points.
VSaaS : Acronym for Video Surveillance as a Service.
WAN : Abbreviation for Wide Area Network. A network of computers located at geographically separate sites.
Watchdog : This is the name given to a diagnostic/recovery tool that is incorporated into many DVRs. Several “heart beat” signals are constantly monitored during normal operation of the unit. If a signal is no longer present the unit will automatically reboot in an attempt to restore normal operation.
Watermark : (Digital) watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital signal in a way that is difficult to remove. The signal may be audio, pictures or video, for example. If the signal is copied, then the information is also carried in the copy. A signal may carry several different
Watt : The common unit of electrical power. A watt is dissipated by a resistance of one ohm through which one-ampere flows.
WB : White balance an electronic process used in video cameras to retain true colors. It is performed electronically and is set on the basis of a white object in the picture.
WDR : Acronym for Wide Dynamic Range. This refers to cameras. This is a high end feature. A camera viewing an image with very bright and very dark sections will probably not show any detail in the dark areas as the camera is adjusted to tone down the bright areas. With WDR the camera view will be much improved showing detail in both light and dark areas. This feature also provides better image detail in low light conditions. For e.g. MCCM70 & 1000TVL series are based on WDR technology.
WEA : Acronym for Wireless Emergency Alerts.
White Level : The brightest part of a video signal corresponding to approximately 1.0 Volt.
Wiegand Card Key : A plastic card, approximately the shape of a credit card, which has an embedded module of inert, specially treated ferromagnetic wires which generate a voltage pulse that can be sensed by a coil within the card reader.
Wiegand Card : An access control card based on the Wiegand effect. Small bits of specially processed wire are embedded in the card in a pattern that uniquely identifies the card. This identification information can then be decoded by a Wiegand reader.
Wiegand Compatible Devices : A propriatary coding format for information used by many of the suppliers of cards, key tags, proximity readers, magnetic stripe readers, bar code readers, and related items.
Wiegand Effect : Electrical pulses generated when individual sections of specially processed magnetic wire is passed by a pickup coil. Each section of this magnetic wire has its own magnetic field. Depending upon the strength of the individual magnetic fields, the pickup coil either senses a strong
Wiegand Reader : A reader capable of reading the information encoded on a Wiegand card.
Wi-Fi : is a WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) technology. It provides short-range wireless high- speed data connections between IP cameras to nearby Wi-Fi access points. Wi-Fi has different types of encryptions standard WPA / WPA2 / WEP for secured access. There are variants of Wi-Fi, 802.11g, is capable of providing speeds of up to 54Mbps and is backwards compatible with 802.11b.
WiFi : Wireless technology that lets a computer connect to a network via an access point (AP).
Wired Alarms : Alarms generated by physical devices connected to the alarm inputs of video devices. Typical devices provide a simple contact closure (connect the input to ground) to initiate the alarm action.
Wireless Emergency Alerts : WEAs can relay AMBER, Presidential and Imminent Threat alerts to mobile phones using cell broadcast technology that will not get backlogged during times of emergency.
Wireless : This refers to any device that can operate without the need for installing wires. High priced wireless systems have become very reliable. The low priced variety (the ones that would sell in typical
XGA : Today, it usually means 1024×768 pixels display resolution, but the official definition is broader than that.
XML : Acronym for eXtensible Markup Language.
Y/C Connector : A 4-pin DIN connector used for high-end S-video sources.
Y Signal : A signal transmitted in color television containing brightness information. This signal produces a black and white picture on a standard information. monochrome receiver. In a color picture it supplies fine detail and brightness
Zone : A specific of protections; a portion of a large protected area.
Zoom Ratio : The ratio of the starting focal length (wide position) to the ending focal length (telephoto position) of a zoom lens. A lens with a 10X zoom ratio will magnify the image at the wide angle end by 10 times when at the telephoto position.
Zoom : To enlarge or reduce, on a continuously variable basis, the size of a televised image primarily by varying lens focal length.